Doctors & patients are saying about ''...

" is a great web site for patients, that is unequaled by anything else out there."

Dr. Douglas L. Packer, MD, FHRS, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

"Jill and I put you and your work in our prayers every night. What you do to help people through this [A-Fib] process is really incredible."

Jill and Steve Douglas, East Troy, WI 

“I really appreciate all the information on your website as it allows me to be a better informed patient and to know what questions to ask my EP. 

Faye Spencer, Boise, ID, April 2017

“I think your site has helped a lot of patients.”

Dr. Hugh G. Calkins, MD  Johns Hopkins,
Baltimore, MD

Doctors & patients are saying about 'Beat Your A-Fib'...

"If I had [your book] 10 years ago, it would have saved me 8 years of hell.”

Roy Salmon, Patient, A-Fib Free,
Adelaide, Australia

"This book is incredibly complete and easy-to-understand for anybody. I certainly recommend it for patients who want to know more about atrial fibrillation than what they will learn from doctors...."

Pierre Jaïs, M.D. Professor of Cardiology, Haut-Lévêque Hospital, Bordeaux, France

"Dear Steve, I saw a patient this morning with your book [in hand] and highlights throughout. She loves it and finds it very useful to help her in dealing with atrial fibrillation."

Dr. Wilber Su,
Cavanaugh Heart Center, 
Phoenix, AZ

"...masterful. You managed to combine an encyclopedic compilation of information with the simplicity of presentation that enhances the delivery of the information to the reader. This is not an easy thing to do, but you have been very, very successful at it."

Ira David Levin, heart patient, 
Rome, Italy

"Within the pages of Beat Your A-Fib, Dr. Steve Ryan, PhD, provides a comprehensive guide for persons seeking to find a cure for their Atrial Fibrillation."

Walter Kerwin, MD, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA

Catheter Ablation

5-Year CABANA Trial: Compares Catheter Ablation with Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy

The catheter ablation procedure for Atrial Fibrillation has been around for 20+ years.

In a randomized controlled trial, the 5-year CABANA study is the largest to compare the A-Fib treatments of catheter ablation (PVI) and antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD).

CABANA stands for Catheter Ablation versus Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy.

CABANA Trial Design

Worldwide, 2,204 patients with new onset or undertreated Atrial Fibrillation were randomized between two treatments: catheter ablation (PVI) or antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy. Patient participants were followed for nearly 5 years.

Patients details: Many patients had concurrent illnesses with Atrial Fibrillation: cardiomyopathy (9%), chronic heart failure (15%), prior cerebrovascular accidents or TIAs (mini-strokes) (10%).

Over half of participants (57%) had persistent or long-standing persistent A-Fib [i.e. harder types of A-Fib to cure].

Drug details: Antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy was mostly rhythm control (87.2%), some received rate control drug therapy.

Anticoagulation drug therapy was used in both groups.

CABANA Trial Results

Crossover a Major Problem: Many in the AAD therapy arm decided to have a catheter ablation instead (27.5%). And some in the ablation arm decided not to have an ablation (9.2%). [One can not blame patients or their doctors for making these life-impacting choices.] 

The CABANA results showed catheter ablation was significantly better than drug therapy for the primary endpoint (a composite of all-cause mortality, disabling stroke, serious bleeding or cardiac arrest). [See Additional Research Findings below.] Mortality and death rate were also significantly better for catheter ablation.

CABANA Findings: Ablation vs AAD Therapy

▪ Catheter Ablation significantly reduced the recurrence of A-Fib versus AAD therapy.

▪ Catheter Ablation improved ‘quality of life’ (QofL) more than AAD therapy, though both groups showed substantial improvement.

▪ Catheter Ablation patients had incremental, clinically meaningful and significant improvements in A-Fib-related symptoms. This benefit was sustained over 5 years of follow-up.

▪ Catheter Ablation was found to be a safe and effective therapy for A-Fib and had low adverse event rates.

Take-Aways for A-Fib Patients

Ablation Works Better than Antiarrhythmic Drugs: Rather than a life on antiarrhythmic drug therapy, the CABANA trial and other studies show that a catheter ablation is the better choice over antiarrhythmic drug therapy.

For related studies, see CASTLE AF: Live Longer-Have a Catheter Ablation and AATAC AF: Catheter Ablation Compared to Amiodarone Drug Therapy.

In an editorial in the Journal of Innovations in Cardiac Rhythm Management, Dr. Moussa Mansour, Massachusetts General Hospital, wrote about the CABANA trial:

“It confirmed our belief that catheter ablation is a superior treatment to the use of pharmacological agents, and corroborates the findings of many other radomized clinical trials.” 

Lower Recurrence: What’s also important for patients is the lower risk of recurrence of A-Fib versus AAD therapy.

Reduced Ablation Safety Concerns: Ablation significantly improved overall mortality and major heart problems.

Immeasurable Improvement in Quality of Life! Perhaps even more important for patients on a daily basis, catheter ablation significantly improved quality of life.

Don’t Settle for a Lifetime on Drugs

Over the years, catheter ablation for A-Fib has become an increasingly low risk procedure with reduced safety concerns. (Ablation isn’t surgery. There’s no cutting involved. Complication risk is similar to tubal ligation or vasectomy.)

An ablation can reduce or entirely rid you of your A-Fib symptoms, make you feel better, and let you live a healthier and longer life (for people who are older, too). A catheter ablation significantly improves your quality of life (even if you need a second “re-do ablation” down the road).

For many, many patients, A-Fib is definitely curable. Getting back into normal sinus rhythm and staying in sinus rhythm is a life-changing experience, as anyone who’s free from the burden of A-Fib can tell you.

See also:  Does a Successful Catheter Ablation Have Side Benefits? How About a Failed Ablation?

Additional Study Findings
Primary endpoints: Results of the primary endpoints were not significant. This is probably due to the crossovers and the lower than expected adverse event rates (5.2% for ablation versus 6.1% for AAD therapy).

Deeper Analysis of Data: The researchers performed sensitivity analyses on the primary results using “treatment received” and “per protocol” rather than “intent to treat”.

Research Terms: Primary endpoint—specific event the study is designed to assess. Intent to treat—all assigned to the AAD group compared to the assigned ablation group (even though 1/4 crossed over to the ablation group). Treatment received—compared all who received an ablation to all who received AAD therapy.
References for this article
• Packer, Douglas. CABANA trial provides important new data on clinical and quality of life effects of ablation for atrial fibrillation. Cardiac Rhythm News: October 18, 2018, Issue 42. P. 1.

• Mansour, Moussa. Letter from the Editor in Chief. The Journal of Innovations in Cardiac Rhythm Management, June 2018. DOI: 10.19102/icrm.2018.090609.

After 18 years in A-Fib, Triathlete Mike Jones Asked, “Could I Be so Fortunate?”

In his A-Fib story, Mike Jones writes that he’d been a very physically active middle age man who competed in running, triathlons and handball. It was difficult for him to accept that “something was wrong”.

In fact, he had paroxysmal A-Fib episodes for at least three years before his official diagnosis. Over the many years, he had been on various drug therapies, but nonetheless, his A-Fib episodes become very debilitating. He shares:

Mike Jones

“For many years, surgical intervention was out of reach, and financially out of the question for me. And, in those days, there was only the “Maze”. Along the way, I read a little bit about the Mini Maze, which did not inspire me much either.
It wasn’t until I found “A-Fib Resources for Patients” [] that I began to take a real interest in researching PVI/PVA [Pulmonary Vein Isolation/Ablation] .”

Mike recalls the day after his life-changing catheter ablation:

“On the drive home the following afternoon, I thought about all those years that I had spent….with all of the drugs, and all of the depressing hours, with all of the sacrifices, and all of the fear…nearly 15 years of it.
Then, my long-awaited PVI procedure. In a 2 day period of time, with little discomfort (and within my budget!) all of that might now be behind me.
Could I be so fortunate?
I feel a little foolish now, a little sheepish, that I had made such a big thing out of getting this procedure done.”

Life After His Ablation

In the ten months following his ablation, Mike writes that he only had two episodes early on and that he continues to take soaks in Epson salts once a week to keep his magnesium levels up.

He writes about his life now that it is free of A-Fib:

 “I do not take any blood thinners, and no heart medication whatsoever. In my 70’s now, I won’t be running any endurance races, and my conditioning level is too low for any serious handball (yet).
But my energy level is high enough that I live a very normal life. I am a hobby woodworker, and I typically spend anywhere from 4 to 6 hours a day in my shop. I walk, swim, cut wood, and, when nobody is looking…I dance.
“I walk, swim, cut wood, and, when nobody is looking…I dance.”
I understand that the A-Fibs might one day return, but I would have no hesitation in returning for a tune up if, or when, that day should ever arrive.”

―Mike Jones, Redding, CA, Now A-Fib free after an ablation using both CryoBalloon and RF methods 

A-Fib is a Progressive Disease

It’s really remarkable that Mike could live in paroxysmal A-Fib for 18 years and not progress to Persistent or Longstanding Persistent A-Fib. In one study over half the people who developed paroxysmal A-Fib turned Persistent after only one year. Perhaps Mike’s athleticism and fitness kept his A-Fib from getting worse.

In most people, A-Fib is a progressive disease that remodels the heart and gets worse over time. To avoid this happening to you, aim to be A-Fib free as soon as you can.

For more about Mike, read his A-Fib story, Triathlete 18 years in A-Fib, on Amiodarone for eight years―then A-Fib free after ablation by Dr. Padraig O’Neill.

For more A-Fib stories to encourage and inspire you, go to Personal A-Fib Stories of Hope.

“Normal” Has a New Meaning for Jim After His Ablation

Before you developed Atrial Fibrillation, did you lead an active lifestyle? Has A-Fib robbed you of your energy and replaced it with fatigue? That’s what happened to Jim. After years of drug therapy that didn’t work, read how Jim recovered his active lifestyle post-ablation.

Three years after his ablation, Jim McGauley of Macclenny, FL, shared his personal A-Fib story with our readers. His atrial fibrillation had been detected several years earlier but was not controlled effectively with drug therapy.

Jim underwent a catheter ablation in the summer of 2009. His procedure was performed without complications by Dr. Saumil Oza and his team at St. Vincent’s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT.

He writes that, after a brief period of recuperation, he resumed normal activity.  In his story, After Years in A-Fib, New Energy and Improved Life, Jim shares: 

“Within a matter of days [of my ablation], I realized that “normal” had a new meaning.
I had lived with the atrial fibrillation for years, and it took the ablation and resulting corrected heart rhythm to bring about a marked surge in my energy level with less fatigue and an overall sense of “fitness”.
I have always maintained an active lifestyle, but post-ablation I was able to increase significantly my exercise regimen. I now run 2-3 miles three times a week and include modest weight training to keep my upper body toned.”
Jim McGauley, Publisher, The Baker County Press, Macclenny, FL. After failed drug therapy, now A-Fib free via catheter ablation.

Catheter Ablation Can Have Life-Altering Effects

Atrial Fibrillation patients seeking a cure and relief from their symptoms often have many questions about catheter ablation procedures. To learn more, see:

• VIDEO: When Drug Therapy Fails: Why Patients Consider Catheter Ablation (3:00 min., includes transcript)
• Treatments/Catheter Ablation
• Frequently Asked Questions: Catheter Ablation, Pulmonary Vein Isolation, CyroBalloon Ablation

About the ablation experience itself, Jim went on to share:

“The ablation itself is minimally invasive considering that it is correcting an abnormality inside the heart itself, and the recovery period was brief and generally comfortable.

I would readily recommend it… to anyone qualifying as a candidate to correct atrial fibrillation.”

―Jim McGauley, now A-Fib free after catheter ablation 

Diet and Nutrition: ‘The China Study’ and Other Diet Plans With Dr. Joseph Mercola

After Saul Lisauskas of Encinitas, CA was diagnosed with Atrial Fibrillation, he was disappointed by doctors who offered only drug therapy with no advice about improving his symptoms through diet and nutrition. He decided to educated himself on the topic: In his A-Fib story Saul wrote:

Saul Lisauskas

“I read a few books on the subject of food and the interaction with our body. The best book was The China Study. It will give you an education about food, its sources and dangers.”

The China Study Book and its Critics

The China Study by T. Colin Campbell & Thomas M. Campbell II was first published in 2004. The book’s title comes from the China-Cornell-Oxford Project, a 20-year study that began in 1983 and was conducted jointly by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Cornell University, and the University of Oxford.

By Campbell & Campbell II

Conflicting opinions: There has been criticism of some of the conclusions drawn in The China Study (mostly focused on data collection, collection bias and data analysis).

Publisher of Christopher Masterjohn, PhD has written: “Only 39 of 350 pages are actually devoted to the China study…[The China Study] would be more aptly titled, A Comprehensive Case for the Vegan Diet, and the reader should be cautioned that the evidence is selected, presented, and interpreted with the goal of making that case in mind.”

The Cornell-Oxford-China Study: A Critique (Jesse and Julie Racsh Foundation) states: “After performing regression analyses, the data does not justify the indictment of all animal foods as risk factors for chronic degenerative disease.” Read the report online or download the PDF.

A Critical Look at ‘The China Study’ and Other Diet Plans: Dr. Mercola Interviews Denise Minger

Dr J. Mercola

A jam-packed, up-to-date article for those interested in improving current health problems and long-term health through diet and nutrition.

Denise Minger

Published in July 2018, natural health expert and founder Dr. Joseph Mercola interviewed Denise Minger, most noted for her comprehensive rebuttal of “The China Study” (The China Study: Fact or Fallacy?) some eight years ago. She’s heavily vested in the vegan versus omnivore battle, having cycled through vegetarianism and raw veganism, finally coming full circle to being an omnivore.

Topics covered in a Critical Look at ‘The China Study’ and Other Diet Plans:

• Raw Veganism Took a Toll on Health
• Debunking ‘The China Study’
• The Case for Lowering Protein Intake
• Protein Cycling
• Macronutrient Cycling — An Overlooked Component of Optimal Health
• Cyclical Ketogenic Diet Is Ideally Combined With Cyclical Fasting
• Focus on Nutrient Density
• How Minger’s Diet Has Changed Over the Years
• Critiquing the Blood Type Diet
• Awesome Omnivore
• Plant-Based Paleo
• Lifelong Learning Is Key to Staying Ahead

Go to A Critical Look at ‘The China Study’ and Other Diet Plans.

VIDEO: Highlights from Dr. Joseph Mercola’s interview with Denise Minger (2:28)

YouTube video playback controls are located in the lower right portion of the frame: closed captions,
speed/quality, watch on YouTube website and enlarge video to full frame.

Additional Resources About Diet and Nutrition

Download the full transcript of Dr. Mercola’s interview with Denise Minger. Read Debra Minger’s The China Study: Fact or Fallacy?.

Read The China Study for Free: The 2006 edition is available to read online or download.

The 2017 edition of The China Study is available at and other bookstores.

See my article: The Effect of Diet & Nutrition on Your A-Fib: My Top 5 Articles.

Resources for this article

• The China Project: Studying the Link Between Diet and Disease. Study room provides a general overview and introduction to the Cornell-China-Oxford project. Accessed August 7, 2018 URL:

• Cornell-Oxford-China Study: A Critique. Jesse and Julie Racsh Foundation. Accessed August 7, 2018 URL:

• Masterjohn, C. The Truth About the China Study. Cholesterol and Accessed August 7, 2018 URL:

• Mercola, J. A Critical Look at ‘The China Study’ and Other Diet Plans., July 08, 2018. URL:

• Minger, D. The China Study: Fact or Fallacy? July 7, 2010.

No Way Am I Having an Ablation! Seeks Alternative Treatments

Saul Lisauskas of Encinitas, CA, was 62 years old when he first detected something wrong with his heart. After his A-Fib was diagnosed, he started to note his episodes were associated with stress and getting angry, along with dehydration, too much caffeinated coffee and foods containing MSG.

Saul Lisauskas

He was disappointed by doctors who offered only drug therapy with no advice about nutrition and the benefts of an improved, healthy diet. He decided to educated himself on the topic: Saul wrote:

“I read a few books on the subject of food and the interaction with our body. The best book was The China Study. It will give you an education about food, its sources and dangers.”

Looking for Alternative Treatments: A Vegetarian Diet

While avoiding his A-Fib ‘triggers’, he decided to go vegetarian but eating fish (a pescetarian) to reduce exposures to foods laced with unhealthy chemicals. (As a bonus, he lost 20 pounds in 3 months.) He was feeling better, but his A-Fib was still active. In his A-Fib story, Saul shares:

“The cardiologist explained to me that the real solution lay in having an Ablation procedure. I was willing to do anything to avoid that surgery.
“I was willing to do anything to avoid that surgery [catheter ablation].”
But with time, my A-Fib episodes increased along with longer periods of activity and stronger symptoms.”
During my ordeal leading up to my Ablation procedure, I was taking various meds in order to control my A-Fib.
However, the meds would make me dizzy and slow down my heart rate to dangerous levels to the point that such levels in fact were counterproductive. My system would compensate by sudden increases of adrenaline and consequently place me in A-Fib mode.
Consequently, I had a pacemaker installed to prevent low levels of heart rate.”

After nearly 8 years since his A-Fib diagnosis, Saul writes about his decision to have a catheter ablation:

“I was getting tired of and frustrated with all these meds.
After too many episodes of A-Fib forcing me to go to the ER, I capitulated against the Ablation surgery and had it done.
Today I am feeling well and doing my daily activities. …I feel that I may be cured well enough not to have to have another ablation.”

― Saul Lisauskas, Encinitas, CA, A-Fib free with pacemaker and catheter ablation

Since his ablation, Saul writes that he remains cautious not to run the risk of stress, dehydration, too much caffeinated coffee or getting angry.

To read more about Saul’s story, see No Way Am I Having an Ablation! But Diet and Meds Disappoint—A-Fib Free After Ablation.

Lessons Learned

When asked if he had any ‘Lessons Learned’ to share, Saul offers these insights:

”Doctors do not have a solution for everybody with A-Fib…We need to carefully educate ourselves as we follow the doctor’s recommendations and observe how our body reacts. Do not follow blindly the doctor’s recommendations.”

Saul certainly did everything he could to avoid having an ablation—identifying what triggered his A-Fib, a vegan diet with fish and all kinds of meds.

Saul certainly did everything he could to avoid having an ablation.

His experience with meds was unfortunate. The meds Saul was taking slowed his heart rate to the point where his doctor had to insert a pacemaker to keep his heart rate normal. It’s crazy to think about it. If this happens to you, talk to your doctor about changing meds (or change doctors).

Unfortunately, once the heart starts to produce A-Fib signals, it’s hard to turn them off. Saul faced the decision that many people have to make. He bit the bullet and had a catheter ablation―with successful results. He’s now A-Fib free!

What’s the Best Treatment Options For You?

A-Fib is not a one-size-fits-all disease. Your Atrial Fibrillation is unique to you. Along with various treatments, you may need to address concurrent medical conditions (i.e, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea). Likewise, you may need to make lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, caffeine, alcohol, smoking).

In addition, your heart is a resilient muscle that tends to heal itself, so you may need a repeat procedure.

To learn about options for Atrial Fibrillation patients, see our pages under Treatments for A-Fib. Then go to: Decisions About Treatment Options. And remember…

Always Aim for a Cure!

NEW VIDEO: What Should I Expect After my A-Fib Catheter Ablation Procedure?

What to expect post-ablation

We have posted a new video that features Cardiac Electrophysiologist Dr. Darryl Wells.

He talks about judging the success of your ablation, why it’s difficult to predict which patients will be completely cured after one ablation procedure and why some require two procedures.

He discusses safety of the procedure and the appropriate age range for patients to receive the ablation procedure. (3:17)

Published by Swedish Heart and Vascular Institute. Go to video->

PVCs Aren’t Always Benign, and He Didn’t Want to Live with Them

Do NOT listen when doctors say PVCs are harmless, writes John Thorton from Sioux Falls, SD. Besides A-Fib and A-Flutter, his PVCs were destroying his life and driving him crazy.

Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs) are premature beats that occur in the ventricles, i.e., the heart’s lower chambers. (Premature beats that occur in the atria, the heart’s upper chambers, are called premature atrial contractions, or PACs.) In his A-Fib story, John writes:

John & Marcia T.

“The local MDs (about a half dozen different ones), cardiologists, EPs, and other local specialists, all told me stuff like: “Everyone has PVCs” and “PVCs are benign,” and “It is just anxiety,” and “You just need to learn to live with it”.
Which was completely WRONG.
Being his Own Patient Advocate

In his A-Fib story, PVC-Free After Successful Ablation at Mayo Clinic, John advises: Be assertive, even aggressive.

“I had to set up my own appointment at Mayo Clinic to get evaluated there. It was a lot of work, by me alone, to get in to see the doctors at Mayo, but it was worth it.
I honestly believe that had I not gone to Mayo, I would have suffered some major heart event, or possibly death.”

PVCs Aren’t Always Benign

Especially for people with A-Fib, PVCs should be taken seriously. Often they precede or predict who will develop A-Fib. They can increase chances of a fatal heart attack or sudden death. The good news: sites in the heart that produce PVCs can be mapped and ablated just like A-Fib signals.

To learn more about PVCs, see my article: FAQs Coping with A-Fib: PVCs & PACs

Don’t be Afraid to Fire Your Doctor!

Kudos to John for being his own best patient advocate, for taking the bull by the horns and dealing with his PVCs. In spite of what he heard from everyone else, he persevered and went to probably the best center in the US for treating PVCs—the Mayo Clinic. Now John’s A-Fib free and only has occasional PVCs.

Like John, don’t be afraid to fire your doctor! To learn how to interview doctors, see our page: Finding the Right Doctor for You and Your A-Fib.

VIDEO: What Should I Expect After the Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedure?

Atrial Fibrillation videos at A-Fib.comCardiac electrophysiologist Dr. Darryl Wells talks about judging success of your ablation, why it’s difficult to predict which patients will be completely cured after one ablation procedure and why some require two procedures, safety and the appropriate age range for patients to receive the ablation procedure. (3:17)

Published by Swedish Heart and Vascular Institute.

YouTube video playback controls: When watching this video, you have several playback options. The following controls are located in the lower right portion of the frame: Turn on closed captions, Settings (speed/quality), Watch on YouTube website, and Enlarge video to full frame. Click an icon to select.

If you find any errors on this page, email us. Y Last updated: Wednesday, July 18, 2018
Return to Instructional A-Fib Videos and Animations

VIDEO: The Hybrid Maze/Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation for Persistent A-Fib

For persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, the Hybrid Maze/Ablation (also called the Hybrid Convergent Procedure) combines the complementary efforts of both the cardiothoracic surgeon and the cardiac electrophysiologist. The surgeon works on the outside the heart and the EP on the inside of the heart to eliminate the Atrial Fibrillation signals.

In this video, two cardiac EPs and a cardiothoracic surgeon describe the advantages, safety and effectiveness of the Hybrid approach and who is a good candidate. Includes animation and on-camera interviews.

Published by Tenet Heart & Vascular Network. Length 4:30. 

YouTube video playback controls: When watching this video, you have several playback options. The following controls are located in the lower right portion of the frame: Turn on closed captions, Settings (speed/quality), Watch on YouTube website, and Enlarge video to full frame. Click an icon to select.

If you find any errors on this page, email us. Y Last updated: Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Return to Instructional A-Fib Videos and Animations

A Tale of Two Ablations and Why All EPs Are Not Equal

I just received an email and O.R. (Operating Room) reports from Louis who in 2014 had a successful catheter ablation by Dr. David Wilber at Loyola in Chicago. Dr. Wilber is nationally known for both his ablation skills and experience, as well as for his research.

First Ablation with Dr. David Wilber

Dr. Wilbur’s ablation of Louis was textbook. Louis’ A-Fib terminated during his ablation procedure, which is considered the ideal outcome.

But Dr. Wilber didn’t stop there.

Dr. Wilber didn’t stop there; he found A-Fib signals coming from the Superior Vena Cava (SVC).

He used isoproterenol (IV medication) to try to induce non-PV triggers and found A-Fib signals coming from the Superior Vena Cava (SVC). He isolated the SVC and could no longer induce any arrhythmias in Louis. (Some EPs would not work that hard, and would have trouble finding and ablating non-PV triggers.)

Relocation, Then Second Ablation―Failure!

But later Louis did develop A-Fib/Flutter again. He had relocated to a distant state so he selected a second EP and had a second ablation there. This ablation was a failure.

After touching up the right pulmonary veins (PVs), the second EP used adenosine and pacing to try to induce arrhythmia signals. He induced Flutter and isolated the right atrium by making a cavo-tricuspid isthmus line. He documented bidirectional block in the right atrium, but Louis still had Flutter.

The second EP didn’t map and track down the flutter.

Rather than map and track down the source of the Flutter, the EP simply Electrocardioverted Louis and stopped the ablation at that point. Then he put Louis on the dreaded antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone.

Still in Flutter―Amiodarone Side Effects

But after the second ablation, Louis still had A-Fib/Flutter.

On amiodarone, Louis developed the symptoms of loss of weight, thinning hair, extreme dry mouth, increased hand tremors, etc. Louis was taken off of amiodarone and is doing better. But he is still bothered by Flutter. See Amiodarone Effective but Toxic.

I’m working with Louis to get him to a “master” EP, a highly skilled EP with a high success rate with difficult A-Fib cases.

What Went Wrong with Louis’ Second Ablation?

From what can be deduced from Louis’ O.R. (Operating Room) report, there seems to be no mention of checking for entrance and exit block after ablating Louis’ pulmonary veins.

As a “crutch”, he put Louis on amiodarone, the most effective but also the most toxic of the antiarrhythmic drugs.

The second EP did use adenosine and pacing and induced a Flutter circuit. He ablated the right atrium and made a cavo-tricuspid isthmus line to make sure no Flutter came from the right atrium. But Louis still had Flutter.

Instead of using any of today’s advanced mapping and isolation strategies, Louis’ EP simply Electrocardioverted him to restore him to sinus. Then he stopped the ablation.

As a “crutch”, he put Louis on amiodarone, the most effective but also the most toxic of the antiarrhythmic drugs.

All EPs are Not Equal―It May Take Work to Find the Right EP

I’m sorry to say, the second EP Louis went to is indeed listed in our directory of EPs. He has all the proper credentials and is a member of the Heart Rhythm Society. But all EPs are obviously not equal. (See my editorial, Huge Growth in Number of EPs Doing Catheter Ablations, But All EPs Are Not Equal.)

Don’t just go to the EP whose office is near you. Go to the best, most experienced EP you can reasonably find. I know it’s a lot of effort. But you have to work at finding the right EP for you.

Do your due diligence. Seek recommendations from your General Practitioner (GP) and from other A-Fib patients (see our Resources/Bulletin Boards for a list of online discussion groups).

If you know nurses or support staff who work in the cardiology field or in Electrophysiology (EP) labs, they can be great resources.

Don’t rely on a single online source when researching and selecting doctors. Be cautious of all doctor informational listings you find on web sites (yes, including this one).

Be prepared to travel if that’s what it takes.

Learn How to Select Your EP

On our page Finding the Right Doctor for You and your A-Fib, we take you step-by-step to finding the right EP for you and your treatment goals.

Catheter Ablation vs Surgery For A-Fib: Finally an Apples-to-Apples Comparison

Update July 27, 2018 Which is better from a patient’s perspective―Catheter Ablation or Surgery (Mini-Maze)? A new study compares the two head-to-head.

An article in Cardiac Rhythm News (no author), describes the SCALAF trial (Surgical vs. Catheter Ablation of paroxysmal and early persistent Atrial Fibrillation).

SCALAF Trial Design

The SCALAF study is the first randomized control trial of patients with symptomatic A-Fib. In a 1:1 ratio, 52 patients received either a catheter ablation or surgery as their first invasive procedure. Follow-up data in all patients was collected for 2 years using implantable loop recorders (Medtronic Reveal XT).

The measurement of success was freedom from A-Fib (atrial tachyarrhythmia) and off antiarrhythmic drugs with safety measured by procedure-related complications.

PV Isolation Direct Comparison: The catheter ablation arm only isolated the PVs without additional lesion sets. The surgical arm (Mini-Maze) only isolated the PVs (and removed the left atrial appendage).

Trial Results

Efficacy: Catheter ablation vs. surgical patients (60% vs. 27%) were free from A-Fib without drugs.

Efficacy: After 2 years, a significantly greater number of catheter ablation patients (60%) were free from A-Fib without having to take A-Fib drugs compared to a much smaller number of surgical patients (27%).

Safety: Surgery patients had a higher procedure-related complication rate (34.8% vs. 11.1%) and a higher rate of major complications (22% vs. 0.0%) compared to catheter ablation patients. That’s about 1-in-4 surgical patients who had significant complications.

Safety: Surgery patients had a higher procedure-related complication rate (34.8% vs. 11.1%).

Hospital Stay: Hospitalization was longer for surgical patients with an average hospital stay of nine (6–10) days compared to three (2–3) days for catheter ablation.

Trial Conclusions

The investigators concluded that catheter ablation of the PVs in the treatment of paroxysmal and early persistent A-Fib is safer and results in higher long-term arrhythmia free survival compared to surgical (Mini-Maze) PV isolation. Follow-up with continuous monitoring using implantable loop recorders was important for true and accurate outcomes.

What Patients Need to Know

Don’t Make Surgery Your First Choice: Following the 2014 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation, your first treatment option should not be surgery (Mini-Maze).

Catheter Ablation Higher Success and Safer: Though this was a small study, this trial showed that catheter ablation is safer with better long-term freedom from A-Fib (and without medication) when compared head-to-head with surgical Mini-Maze. Follow-up monitoring of each patient with an implantable loop recorder (for 24/7, 365 days for two years) produced unbiased, non-disputable results.

The 2011 FAST Trial: The SCALAF trial results might be compared to the 2011 FAST Trial sponsored by AtriCure, Inc. The FAST trial compared AtriCure’s own system for Mini-Maze surgery to catheter ablation. The results favoring surgery don’t hold up under close scrutiny. More important was the high complication rate of the surgical approach. For more, see Surgical Versus Catheter Ablation―Flawed Study.

SCALAF: Catheter ablation is safer with better long-term freedom from A-Fib (and without medication) when compared head-to-head with surgical Mini-Maze.
 The Bottom Line: We now have an unbiased clinical trial comparing catheter ablation with surgery.

According to the SCAFAL trial, catheter ablation has higher success for long-term freedom from A-Fib than the surgery approach. Just as important, data from both FAST and SCAFAL demonstrate that catheter ablation is much safer than surgery.

Update July 27, 2018: In response to this post about the SCAFAL trial, we received this statement from surgeon Dr. John H. Sirak who performs the “5 box surgery” for A-Fib. Especially relevant is his statement that surgical PVI alone tends to produce Flutter. (The FAST study did compare more complex surgeries to catheter ablation.)

“I must be direct and say this study is next to worthless. First, it isn’t clear how the cohorts compare in terms of AF chronicity. Surgical PVI should at least be no worse than percutaneous. PVI is the most foolproof step of a surgical maze. If the randomization were truly accurate, why was the surgical arm so much smaller? My suspicion is that the surgical arm had a significantly higher number of non-paroxysmal patients. And who were the orangutans operating with a 35% complication rate? Along the same lines, since surgical PVI alone is now widely known to be fluttergenic and thus contraindicated, no reputable surgeon would offer a patient such an outdated operation! This study is not only pathetically executed, but also has no relevance to current standard-of-care practice.” 
Resources for this article
• Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation results in higher complication rates when compared to catheter ablation. Cardiac Rhythm News (no author). May 18, 2018, Issue 41, p. 9.

• Surgical or Catheter Ablation of Lone Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Patients (SCALAF). Identifier: NCT00703157. Sponsor: Medtronic Bakken Research Center Note: Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.

• AHA/ACC/HRS 2014 Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. published online March 28, 2014, 4.2.1. Antiplatelet Agents, p 29.doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000041 Last accessed Nov 23, 2014.URL: From

Catheter Ablation Compared to Amiodarone Drug Therapy in Heart Failure Patients with A-Fib

Background: I previously reported on the ground-breaking CASTLE-AF study published in 2018 which compared treatment with conventional antiarrhythmic drugs (both rate and rhythm control) versus treatment with catheter ablation. I recently came across another, similar study. While the 2016 AATAC study pre-dates the CASTLE-AF study, it also contributes to our understanding of treatment choices for heart failure patients with A-Fib.

Treating Patients with Both Heart Failure and A-Fib

Heart failure is very common in patients with A-Fib (estimated at 42%). These are very sick patients. For people with advanced heart failure, nearly 90% die within one year.

In patients with both conditions, a cardiologist’s first treatment is most often drug therapy with an antiarrhythmic drug. But is this an effective strategy? Is this really in the patient’s best interest? A 2016 study says NO!

AATAC stands for: Ablation vs Amiodarone for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and an Implanted ICD/CRTD

AATAC: Catheter Ablation vs. Amiodarone Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy

In the powerful AATAC multicenter worldwide randomized trial, catheter ablation was compared to drug treatment with amiodarone (the most effective but also the most toxic of the antiarrhythmic drugs).

The 203 enrolled patients had persistent A-Fib and heart failure with an Ejection Fraction of less than 40%. Patients also all had either a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator.

All patients in the AATAC study were given optimal medical therapy for congestive heart failure such as ACE inhibitors, etc.

Patients were randomized to receive either a catheter ablation or drug treatment with amiodarone.

Note: The AATAC study should be read in conjunction with the more significant CASTLE-AF study which found similar results.

Group 1: Catheter Ablation

The first group received a catheter ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVI) along with roof lines and extensive ablations on the left atrial posterior wall; if non-PV potentials were found, the superior vena cava was isolated. At their discretion, EPs could ablate complex fractionated electrograms and non-PV triggers.

A ‘re-do procedure’ could be performed during the 3-month blanking period.

Group 2: Amiodarone (AMIO) Drug Treatment

The Amiodarone (AMIO) group was given 400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks followed by 400 mg each day for the next 2 weeks, then they were given a maintenance dose of AMIO 200 mg/day for the balance of the 24 month study period.

Study Follow-up and Results

All patients were followed for a minimum of 24 months. Recurrence was measured by the implantable devices with device interrogation at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months follow-up. Key findings at the end of the trial period include:

Recurrence: 70% of patients in the ablation group were recurrence and A-Fib free (after an average of 1.4 procedures) vs. only 34% of the Amiodarone (AMIO) group.

PVI with/without posterior wall isolation: Higher success was reported in patients undergoing PVI with posterior wall isolation compared to PVI alone (79% vs. 8%).

Amiodarone therapy was found to be significantly more likely to fail.

Cardioversion: During the 3-month blanking period 51% of the Amiodarone (AMIO) group needed cardioversion vs. 3% of the ablation group.

The unplanned hospitalization rate was 31% in the ablation group vs. 57% in the AMIO group. This is a 45% relative risk reduction of hospitalization.

A significantly lower mortality was observed in the ablation group: 8% vs. AMIO 18%.

Summary: Catheter Ablation Superior to Amiodarone Drug Therapy

Heart failure and A-Fib are common cardiac conditions that often coexist.

The AATAC study, the first randomized study of heart failure patients with persistent A-Fib, found that catheter ablation is superior to amiodarone drug therapy in achieving freedom from A-Fib long-term.

In addition, treatment with catheter ablation improved mortality in these patients, increased exercise capacity and Quality of Life (QofL) along with reduced unplanned hospitalizations.

Acknowledging My Bias
I admit to being biased against amiodarone drug therapy due to personal experience and from what others have shared. (For example, see Karen Muccino’s A-Fib story.) I am horrified that anyone would be put on such a high initial dosage of amiodarone as in this study. I would never participate in such a study. But obviously all doctors don’t share my concerns.
If a less potent (and less dangerous) antiarrhythmic drug had been used, it’s probable the study results would have been even more favorable for the ablation group.

What This Means to A-Fib Patients

These patients were in persistent A-Fib along with heart failure. These are some of the most difficult patients to make A-Fib free.

The EPs and A-Fib centers in this study were some of the best in the world. That there was a 70% success rate and no recurrences after 2 years is a testimony to the advanced mapping and ablation skills of these EPs. It’s remarkable how far catheter ablation strategies have improved over the years.

On the downside, not all EPs are equal. The single procedure success rate varied greatly from 29% to 61%. (See Huge Growth in Number of EPs Doing Catheter Ablations, But All EPs Are Not Equal.)

Catheter Ablation Group: Improved Ejection Fractions

Among the 203 enrolled patients, it’s not surprising that there were 26 deaths during this study. These were very sick patients with congestive heart failure and Ejection Fraction below 40%. (An EF below 50% indicates a weakened heart muscle that is no longer pumping efficiently; an EF in the normal range is 50% to 75%.)

The good news is that for many in the catheter ablation group, their ejection fraction was significantly improved and they were no longer in heart failure.

Catheter Ablation Outperforms Antiarrhythmic Drugs

We now have 2 studies which demonstrate that compared to antiarrhythmic drug therapy, catheter ablation lowers death rate among A-Fib patients (with heart failure), improves QofL and lets patients live longer and healthier lives. Other major benefits of ablation include reduced unplanned hospitalizations and increased exercise capacity.

Take-Away for A-Fib Patients

I think we can draw conclusions from the AATAC and the CASTLE AF studies that also apply to A-Fib patients (not in heart failure).

Rather than a life on antiarrhythmic drug therapy, the AATAC and CASTLE AF studies encourage A-Fib patients to seek a catheter ablation (including a second “re-do ablation”, if necessary.)

Bottom-line: Hard research data shows that a catheter ablation is the better choice over drug therapy. An ablation can rid you of your A-Fib symptoms, make you feel better, and let you live a healthier and longer life.

Don’t just live with A-Fib. Seek your cure.


Resources for this Article
Di Biase, L., et al. Ablation Versus Amiodarone for Treatment of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and an Implanted Device. Results From the AATAC Multicenter Randomized Trial. Circulation. 2016;133:1637-1644. March 30, 2016. DOI

From My Mailbox: Catheter Ablation Complication Rate: Compared to What?

Frequently I get emails asking about the complication rate of catheter ablation.

I like the suggestion made by Dr. David Keane of St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin Ireland. Complications from A-Fib ablation should be viewed in perspective, that is, compared to the alternative of a lifetime on antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs).

The following is based on his presentation from the 2014 Boston AF Symposium.

Meta-Analysis: RF Catheter Ablation vs. Antiarrhythmic Drugs

In what may be the first systematic literature review and meta-analysis of clinical studies of Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) vs. Antiarrhythmic Drugs (AADs), the reviewers looked at studies from 1990 to 2007. [Note: RFA wasn’t in use until the mid-1990s.] Included were sixty-three RFA studies and 34 AAD studies.

RF Ablation: From 1990-2007, the single procedure success rate for Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) without need of post-op Antiarrhythmic Drug (AAD) therapy was 57% [today’s success rates are in the 70%–85% range], multiple procedure success rates without post-op AADs were 71% [today’s success rates are closer to 90%], and the multiple procedure success rate with post-op AADs was 77%.

AAD Therapy: The success rate for AAD therapy alone was 52%.

Note: The meta-analysis included five AADs: amiodarone, dofetilide, sotalol, flecainide, and propafenone. Amiodarone was the most effective. [Amiodarone is the most toxic and dangerous of the five AADs and is usually prescribed only for short periods of time and under close supervision for bad side effects.]

Adverse Event: side effect or any undesirable experience associated with the use of a medical product in a patient. In the US, adverse events are reported to the FDA.

Side Effects Cause Patients to Stop Taking AADs: Because of adverse events (side effects), 10.4% of patients discontinued taking their AADs, 13.5% discontinued AADs because of treatment failure, and 4.2% just didn’t take the AADs.

The overall discontinuation rate of AADs was almost 30%.

Findings: Efficiency and Complications Rates

Based on the meta-analysis, reviewers found Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) had a higher efficiency rate and a lower rate of complications than AAD Therapy.

Findings: Adverse Events Ablation vs AAD

As a point of reference, the complication rate of the common appendectomy is 18%.

This meta-analysis found adverse events for catheter ablation was 5% vs 30% for AAD studies.

More about AAD Therapy adverse events: The overall death rate for AAD therapy was 2.8% (i.e., sudden death 0.6%, treatment-related death 0.5%, non treatment-related death 1.3%). Other adverse events from AAD therapy were:

•  CV (cardiovascular) Events 3.7%
•  Bradycardia 1.9%
•  GI (Gastrointestinal problems) 6.5%
•  Neuropathy 5.0%
•  Thyroid Dysfunction 3.3%
•  Torsades 0.7%
•  Q-T prolongation 0.2%

Conclusions from Meta-Analysis

Most adverse events associated with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) are life altering and permanent. (For example, bradycardia requires a pacemaker.)

Whereas complications from catheter ablation are generally short term and not permanent. (For example, when tamponade is repaired, the heart usually returns to normal.)

While this meta-analysis covered 1990-2007, based on subsequent research the trends are continuing. In general, it appears it’s safer to have an ablation than to not have one while living a life-time on AAD therapy.

D. Keane MD

The Full Report: For the full summary of Dr. Keane’s 2014 Symposium presentation, see: Catheter Ablation Complications: In-depth Review and Comparison with Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy.

What this Means to Patients

If you are age 70 or 80, antiarrhythmic drugs might be a realistic option.

But if you are younger, it’s inconceivable that you would spend the rest of your life taking AADs. In addition to not working well or losing their effectiveness over time, they can have bad, cumulative side effects as described above.

Today’s ‘Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation’ reflect this fact and allow you to select a catheter ablation without having to spend time trying various antiarrhythmic drugs (while your A-Fib may be getting worse).

In general, research shows it’s safer to have an ablation than to not have one (and live a lifetime on AA drug therapy).

Resources for this Article
•  Deshmukh, A. et al. In-Hospital Complications Associated with Catheter Ablation of AF in US: 2000-2010. Analysis of 93,801 Procedures. Circulation. 2013;128:2104-2112.

•  Haïssaguerre M. “Electrophysiological End Point for Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Initiated From Multiple Pulmonary Venous Foci,” Circulation. 2000;101:p. 1409

•  Jais, P. “Ablation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation: Past, Present and Future,” Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 54, Issue 2, May 2002, P. 343

•  Cappato R et al. “Updated worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation.” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 2010: 3:32-38.

•  AHA/ACC/HRS. 2014 Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2014; 130: e199-e267 DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000041.

Story Update: Ashley Mogg, a 23-Year Old Jamaican, Now A-Fib Free!

I’ve seldom been so happy to write about an A-Fib success story (actually an update)! A story that had such a miserable beginning.

A-Fib at 17 and Started Losing Sight!

Eighteen months ago, I wrote a story about 21-year-old Ashley Mogg from Jamaica. Her A-Fib was horrible. Her first A-Fib attack came at age 17 when she had just stopped playing field hockey. Ashley wrote:

Ashley Mogg from Jamaica

“I was feeling extremely unfit. My heart rate sped up and my chest got tight. My throat felt like it was closing, and I was starving for a breath. Then the most frightening thing happened―I started losing my sight! Pitch black was all I saw. I could hear my friend talking to me through it. It was so scary for me.”

Her doctor told her losing sight was a symptom of pre-faint or pre-syncope. Her stress test showed a heart rate that at times went up to 270 bpm.

Clinical Depression Sets In

To make matters worse, her cousin died suddenly. Then Ashley had to have an appendectomy which revealed a low grade Neuroendocrine tumor (cancer). Coupled with her dreadful A-Fib symptoms, she became extremely depressed and anxious (clinical depression is all too common in new A-Fib patients). She also suffered weight loss and became very thin.

No A-Fib Centers in Jamaica

Unfortunately, when I researched resources for her I couldn’t find any A-Fib centers or Electrophysiologists in Jamaica. It was heart breaking that such a young woman had such a debilitating case of A-Fib, and I couldn’t find anyone near her to take care of her.

November 2016: Asking for Funding and Help for Ashley

What I did was publish her story on and ask for donations to pay for her to see an EP in the U.S. (Read Jamaican Woman, 21, Living in A-Fib with Meager Treatment)

Dr. Natale confirmed that there was no EP lab in Jamaica and would try to find money from the A-Fib industry to help Ashley.

In addition, I sent Ashley’s story to Dr. Andrea Natale, a master EP with a world-wide reputation. A colleague of his, Dr. Francesco Santoni, emailed me that he tries to help arrhythmia patients in Jamaica through the Rotary Club and another foundation. Travis Smith, President of the Rotary Club of Downtown Kingston, Jamaica championed Ashley’s cause.

Dr. Natale suggested we work with Dr. Lisa Hurlock in Kingston, Jamaica at the University of the West Indies who could follow her arrhythmia. She met with Ashley and her mother, Loretta. Dr. Natale confirmed that there was no EP lab in Jamaica. He said he would try to find money from the A-Fib industry to help Ashley.

Dr. Natale’s Heroic Efforts to Help Ashley―Biosense Webster Donation

Dr Andrea Natale

Dr Andrea Natale

Dr. Natale obtained a donation from Biosense Webster (Johnson & Johnson) to cover travel expenses for Ashley and her mother to St. David’s Medical Center, Austin, TX including lodging, food and transportation. He also arranged for St. David’s to waive all fees for Ashley’s catheter ablation. The Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Foundation accepted donations to help Ashley. Barbara Thomas and Amy Dixon coordinated everything at St. David’s.

(I probably don’t have all the names of everyone involved in helping Ashley. Please email me if I haven’t mentioned you or someone else who helped.)

Ashley, mom Loretta and hospital staff

July 2017: Ashley Has Her Ablation & is A-Fib Free!

On July 19, 2017, Ashley had her ablation. She is now A-Fib free. It was performed by Dr. Natale and his team at St. David’s Medical Center, Austin, TX. Since then, she has written that she is doing fine and has started college in Jamaica (she wants to go to medical school).

In an excerpt from her personal story (written before her ablation became a reality), Ashley shared these lessons learned:

“Educate Yourself―Find the Best Doctors Available. If you live in a country like myself where there are very few Electrophysiologists or heart rhythm specialists, find a reliable cardiologist as well as a general doctor who know your history. Do maximum research on your own and with your doctor and health care professionals. Stay informed.
…Stay positive…You are NOT ALONE!”

Remarkable for a 21-year old who has had a rapid beating heart since childhood.

March 2018 Update: Email from Ashley’s Mother

Loretta Mogg, Ashley’s mother recently wrote me:

Ashley and her mom, Loretta

“I am Loretta Mogg, the mother of Ashley Mogg. I want to express a heartfelt thanks to you for posting my daughter’s story and seeking help for her.
Just a little update. After nearly a year since her ablation, she is back in University and doing well. She is still determined to become a doctor.
Thank you for allowing God to use your own experience to change the life of another. Blessings to you and your family.”

Thanks to All, Especially to Dr. Natale

It’s impossible to adequately thank everyone, especially Dr. Natale, who helped Ashley in her incredibly difficult A-Fib journey.

I don’t know if we’ll ever understand how a young 17-year-old woman could develop such awful A-Fib symptoms. (Perhaps it related to her cancerous appendectomy.)

Faith and a Purposeful Life

Kudos to Ashley for not giving up with all she went through! She’s an incredible young woman. She had to grow up fast. She became a woman of faith with a purposeful life. In her own words, “It takes prayers and positive thinking to keep living with peace of mind.”

Be Inspired: You, too, Can Help Others With A-Fib

One-to-One, our A-Fib Support Volunteers are just an email away at A-Fib.comOne way to live a life of faith and purpose is to help others suffering with Atrial Fibrillation. Join our Prayer and Positive Thoughts group or our A-Fib Support Volunteers group.

Offering hope: Having someone you can turn to for advice, emotional support, and a sense of hope that you can be cured, may bring A-Fib patients (and their families) peace of mind.

We are blessed to have many generous people who have volunteered to help others get through their A-Fib ordeal (not all are ‘cured’). To learn more and how you can join the effort, see my article: ‘Want to Become a A-Fib Support Volunteer?

We’ve Got Answers: Browse Our Q&As About Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

After reading our page about Catheter Ablation: Pulmonary Vein Ablation, you may have many questions. At, we have answered thousands of questions from A-Fib patients—many of the same questions you may have.

In the realm of catheter ablation, the range of issues and questions can be staggering. Topics including RF energy vs Cryo, enlarged heart and heart failure, PV vs non-PV potentials/triggers, recurrences, O.R. Reports and many more.

At, we provide answers. Here are a few of the questions we answer in FAQ: Catheter Ablation Procedures:

Steve S. Ryan observing ablation by Dr. Sidney Peykar, Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute

Radiation exposure:How dangerous is the fluoroscopy radiation during an ablation? I’m worried about radiation exposure.”

Blanking Period:How long before you know a Pulmonary Vein Ablation procedure is a success?

Clots/Blood Thinners: “I was told that I will have to take an anticoagulant for about 2-3 months after my ablation. Afterwards shouldn’t there be even less need for a prescription anticoagulant rather than more?”

Non-PV Triggers:Are there other areas besides the pulmonary veins with the potential to turn into A-Fib hot spots?

 A-Fib cure?I’ve read that an ablation only treats A-Fib symptoms, that it isn’t a ‘cure.

Browse our Q&A: Catheter Ablation: Pulmonary Vein Ablation, CyroBalloon Ablation

Additional topics we cover: the heart’s blood pumping capacity, the age range for a successful ablation, time length of a typical ablation, developing a clot during an ablation, resuming ‘normal’ exercise after a PV, who’s a candidate for a Pulmonary Vein Ablation, and more.

Go to FAQ About A-Fib Treatments Options: Catheter Ablation Procedures to browse all our posted questions and ‘click’ on any question to jump to the answer.

More Categories of Question & Answers

For all our Q & A lists, go to our page Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) by Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

At Medical Centers: Why to Always Ask for a Specific EP

In talking with A-Fib patients, I’ve found a disturbing trend when they seek an Electrophysiologist (EP) at a medical center when they don’t have the name of a specific doctor.

Often the medical center’s office will assign the newest and/or least experienced EP on staff.

Not good. Instead, you want an experienced EP with a high success rate at getting A-Fib patients back into normal rhythm. (You deserve nothing less.)

Your Search for the Right EP

First, seek recommendations from your General Practitioner (GP) or cardiologist. If you know nurses or staff who work in the cardiology field, they can be great resources. Ask for referrals from other A-Fib patients.

Begin your own research with our page, Find the Right Doctor for You. Then check our Directory of Doctors Treating A-Fib.

All EPs Are Not Equal

After you’ve done your research, you’ll have a list of EPs you know are more experienced in getting A-Fib patients back into normal sinus rhythm. (For example, someone with the initials FHRS after his name, and/or a ‘Castle Connolly Top Doctor’).

Then, you can contact a medical center and ask for a particular EP.

Especially when you are seeking an ablation, all EPs are not equal. Selecting the right EP isn’t like getting a haircut at SuperCuts where any stylist will do.

Left Atrial Appendage (LAA): An Under-Recognized Trigger Site of Atrial Fibrillation

Recurrence of A-Fib after an ablation is very disappointing and frustrating both for patients and for EPs performing the ablation.

A link to the source of A-Fib recurrence may have been found. A study by Dr. Di Biase and his colleagues established that the LAA is responsible for a great deal of A-Fib recurrence.

Research: LAA Responsible for 27% of Recurrences

The multi-center study enrolled patients at leading medical centers in Austin, Texas, San Francisco and Palo Alto, Calif, Rome and Venice, Italy, Cleveland and Akron, Ohio.

In the study of 987 patients undergoing redo catheter ablations, 266 (27%) showed a prevalence of A-Fib triggers firing from the LAA.

In 32+% of these 266 patients, the LAA was the only source of arrhythmia signals.

Trial Design of LAA for Recurrences

The 266 patients were divided into three groups with different treatments. Each group was followed for 12+ months with these results:

  • Group 1. The LAA was not ablated (isolated); 74% of this group had recurrences of A-Fib.
  • Group 2. The LAA was ablated with focal lesions. 68% of this group had recurrences of A-Fib.
  • Group 3. The LAA was ablated by a circular catheter at the ostium of the LAA. 15% of this group had recurrences of A-Fib.

Trial Findings: LAA Responsible for Much A-FibLeft Atrial Appendage heart illustration

While this study was limited, as it only looked at redo ablations and recurrences, it’s significant. The patients (Group 3) who were ablated by a circular catheter at the ostium of the LAA, had a recurrence rate of only 15%!

Compared to 68% and 74%, this is a major, significant reduction in recurrences. This is great news for A-Fib patients undergoing a catheter ablation.

Trial results indicate that the LAA is responsible for a great deal of arrhythmia signals, probably more than any other area of the heart.

A-Fib Ablations: Check LAA for Non-PV Signals

Many EPs today aren’t aware of the importance of the LAA as a source of A-Fib signals and never even look at the LAA when doing an ablation. In the words of the study’s authors, “the LAA is an underestimated site of initiation of atrial fibrillation.

It’s good news that an increasing number of EPs after performing a PVI, then as their second step, map and ablate the LAA. This is especially in cases of persistent A-Fib and those with non-PV triggers. After the PVs are isolated, the LAA should be the next place to look. (Make sure your EP is one those who check the LAA!)

What This Means to Ablation Patients

This research is important not just for patients undergoing a redo catheter ablation but for any A-Fib patient seeking a catheter ablation.

Important when selecting your EP: When having a catheter ablation, no matter what kind of A-Fib you have, make sure your EP knows how, is experienced at, and routinely maps and ablates the LAA.

This may produce a more successful ablation and save you from a recurrence of A-Fib.

To learn more about the Left Atrial Appendage, see my article, The Role of the Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) & Removal Issues.

Resources for this Article
Di Biase et al. Left Atrial Appendage: An Underrecognized Trigger Site of Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 2010;122:109-118.

At 55, A-Fib After Underwater Hockey, Then 2 Failed Ablations & a 3rd Using the ECGI Vest

By Martin Johnson, Champaign, IL. March 2018
With a post-script by Dr. Phillip Cuculich, Barnes-Jewish/Washington Un.

Martin Johnson

“My first A-Fib attack that I noticed, occurred in 2003 when I was 55 years old during a game of underwater hockey, an extreme sport requiring swimming under water while pushing a lead puck from one end of the pool to the other.

At first, I thought “well I did just swim 25 yards under water as fast as I could, so maybe this is just normal”. It lasted about 20 seconds.

The attacks quickly increased their duration to a couple hours each over the next couple months. I was forced to give up the game I’d been playing since age 37. I switched sports to softball, but that soon became impossible too, as I got an A-Fib attack every single game (but oddly, never at a practice).

A-Fib Progresses―Attack Just Sitting at Desk

For the first couple of years I only got attacks after physical exertion. As time went on, less and less exertion was required to trigger one.

I had my first attack without any kind of physical exertion while sitting at my desk at work. It scared me enough to see the local EP who recommended that I get an ablation. I thought that was too aggressive and instead started to try various drugs.

“My EP’s prognosis was―’ever more often, ever longer attacks until I would be in permanent A-Fib’”.

After going through 6 different drugs, most of which had no effect, one of which almost killed me and another that modified my attacks, I had no net improvement. My EP’s prognosis was “ever more often, ever longer attacks until I would be in permanent A-Fib”.

By 2010, I was getting approximately 24-hour long attacks approximately every four days plus occasional attacks triggered by physical exertion.

My First Ablation

I had my first RF ablation in July of 2010. I asked the EP if I should be in my natural A-Fib before the ablation, so that he could locate the problem cells. He said ‘no’. Instead, he induced A-Fib chemically. His approach was to isolate the PVs and draw several other lines in the left atrium. He then ablated the cells that he could detect taking part in the A-Fib that he induced.

He successfully got my heart back into Sinus Rhythm (SR), and was unable to further induce A-Fib. His OR report says that he expected this to have been a cure. (An O.R. [Operating Room] report describes what the EP did during the ablation.)

Two hours after the ablation, I was in A-Fib again.

In A-Fib Again―Leads to a Second Ablation

My A-Fib attack timing continued without letup— 24-hour-long attacks every 4 days. I agreed to a second ablation 6 months later.

“Two hours after the ablation, I was in A-Fib again.”

The OR Report for the second ablation was essentially the same as the first, and so were the results. After both ablations, I acquired new arrhythmias that annoyed me even while not in A-Fib. After about 6 months, the new arrhythmias abated, and my A-Fib pattern changed to 24 hours every 7 days—a small but welcome improvement.

Over the next five years, the attacks became longer and more frequent— by Jan 2016, I had 45 hours of A-Fib every 7 days.

Third Ablation? I Needed an Edge

Still I was not optimistic about a third ablation considering my previous poor results.

Medtronic ECGI vest

I decided I needed an edge—something that might be able to find whatever oddball A-Fib cause made me difficult to cure. The one thing that stuck out in my reading was the Medtronic ECGI vest used in Bordeaux, France by Dr Haissaguerre and others. [See How ECGI (Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging) Works.]

The 256 electrode ECGI vest enabled the graphic display of the electrical activity of the heart passively and totally non-invasively. Unfortunately, Dr Haissaguerre’s office would not respond to any of my attempts to contact him. And I learned that the FDA would not permit the use of the vest in the US as part of an ablation procedure.

Travel to St. Louis Where the ECGI Vest Was Invented

It seemed that all doors to the vest were shut. After some investigation, I discovered that the vest had actually been invented in the US at Washington Un. in St. Louis, MO. In January 2016

“I volunteered for a study…that might help me get use of the vest in spite of the FDA.”

I called up the inventor’s lab to get as much information as I could. I volunteered for a study with the hope of making connections that might someday help me get use of the vest in spite of the FDA.

In January 2017, I went to St Louis and got a CT scan and a vest recording for the study I had volunteered for. While there, I noticed a Dr. Cuculich come into the lab to borrow a vest. I immediately thought, this is the guy I need to keep track of.

FDA Approves Medtronic ECGI Vest―My New Hope!

Then the next month, Feb 2017, the FDA approved a commercial version of the vest made by Medtronic for use with A-Fib ablation.

By this time, I was having 48 hour attacks every 4 days. I called Medtronic to get a list of who in the US had bought the vest and who had any experience using it. To my relief, Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St Louis was one of only four buyers, and Dr Cuculich already had experience using the vest on non-A-Fib applications.

Now that I had located a possible vest practitioner, I still had to resolve other concerns. In particular, even Dr Haissaguerre in France didn’t use the vest on paroxysmal A-Fibbers. He only used the vest on patients with permanent A-Fib. I don’t know why. I was convinced that being in my natural A-Fib and not in chemically induced A-Fib, was essential to find the real causes. I also knew that I could put myself into A-Fib by physical exertion.

BisenseWebster Smart Catheter illustrations

Example of Contact force catheter (Biosense Webster)

Another Technology Edge: The Contact Force Catheter

Another technology that seemed important was the technique of dragging the catheter in order to burn a continuous line, rather than trying to burn individual dots. To help with this, a contact force catheter also seemed necessary. I first became aware of this due to a paper written by Dr Natale of Austin, TX. (see Resources below for article.)

A Concern: I Don’t Want to Lose My LAA

Another concern of mine was the insistence by some EPs to electrically isolate the Left Atrial Appendage (LAA).

“…in my mind…if the ablation worked, there would be no advantage to having closed off the LAA.”

During A-Fib, the blood in the LAA becomes stagnant, permitting the formation of clots.

But cutting off incompletely understood parts of one’s heart seemed exceedingly rash. Also, if the ablation worked, there would be no advantage to having closed off the LAA. So, closing off the LAA was just preparing for a failed ablation, in my mind.

About the Left Atrial Appendage (LAA)

What little is known about the LAA includes the fact that it is the source of heart stem cells needed for repair of the heart.

It was once thought that the heart cells you died with were the same ones you were born with. The latest belief is that about 40% of your heart is replaced during a full life.

This is a function I did not want to lose.

The LAA is also the source of a hormone which helps control blood pressure. The LAA also has a pumping function in parallel with the Left Atrium. And electrically isolating the LAA can often significantly reduce the contractile function of the LAA, thus making it a source of clots even when the heart is not in A-Fib.

Consulting Dr. Phillip Cuculich at Barnes-Jewish/Washington Un.

I called up Barnes-Jewish to inquire about my above listed concerns. Dr Cuculich called back and assured me that he was able and willing to meet all these requests:

1) Use the ECGI vest during ablation even though I’m paroxysmal;
2) To expect me to be in my organic A-Fib;
3) After getting me into Normal Sinus Rhythm, chemical induction of A-Fib was OK to track down more problems;
4) Use a contact force catheter and draw continuous lines rather than dots;
5) Leave my LAA electrically and physically intact.

Third Ablation―Running Up Flights of Stairs

The night before the scheduled ablation, I ran up and down a flight of stairs ten times which put me in my organic A-Fib in preparation for the following morning’s ablation.

On Nov 2, 2017, two Medtronic technicians fitted the 3-piece vest onto my torso. The ablation procedure took 5 hours—a lot longer than Dr Cuculich was planning on.

I woke up in NSR! The doctor noted that an A-Fib source in a pulmonary vein was active, but was already successfully being blocked by the ablation.

In Normal Sinus, But Short Bursts of A-Fib

Since the ablation 3.5 months ago, I have had about 15 A-Fib attacks totaling about 7 hours of A-Fib. [It’s not uncommon for A-Fib to reoccur during the three month ‘blanking period’ following an ablation.]

I believe every attack was triggered by drinking cold water. It took me a while to figure that out. I have not had an attack for the last month, during which I was able to remember ‘no cold water’!

Lessons Learned

For future reference: I read that Dr Cuculich was the lead investigator in a study of a totally non-invasive ablation procedure that uses the Medtronic vest to find the problems and ‘multi-beam focused radiation’ to ablate the errant heart cells.

I’m hoping that if my A-Fib comes back, that the FDA won’t have been as slow permitting this new method, as they were with the vest (see Resources below for link).

In light of my experience, I would recommend that no one get an ablation without the advantage of the Medtronic ECGI vest. Without it, the EP is only guessing.

Using canonical ablation patterns that might have worked on some group of A-Fibbers, or using the old fashioned way of dragging a sensing catheter along the entire inner surface of a beating heart looking for electrical anomalies, is laughable to me.

It’s no wonder that my first EP couldn’t find the A-Fib sources inside my coronary sinus and right atrium. I welcome your emails.”

Marty Johnson

Comments from Dr. Phillip Cuculic

Electrophysiologist Phillip Cuculich, MD

Phillip Cuculich, MD

“Thank you, Steve, for the chance to reply [to Martin’s A-Fib story]. And thank you, Martin, for sharing your story with the world. Brave patients and advocates like you are a powerful combination in today’s world of medicine.

Our understanding of any arrhythmia mechanism falls into two bins: the initiating event (triggers) and the sustaining circuit.

Over the past several decades, invasive procedures have identified common locations that harbor AF triggers, which is how pulmonary vein isolation has been an effective procedure to control AF for most patients. In general, we as a field have struggled in identifying reproducible non-PV triggers and the sustaining AF circuits.

One reason for our struggle is the tools with which we measure. A second reason is that each person’s AF is different, so the findings of one group of patients is not easily applicable to an individual patient that I meet for consultation.

Martin’s experience with noninvasive ECGI is a wonderful example of personalized medicine: treating an individual patient’s AF physiology. Credit for the development and clinical validation of this technology goes to the scientists, clinicians and industry development teams which include Dr. Yoram Rudy (Washington University), the amazing scientists who graduated from his lab, the intrepid clinical and investigational teams in Bordeaux, France, and the hard-working developers at CardioInsight and Medtronic.

Presently, thoughtful application of noninvasive ECGI is getting us closer to personalized AF treatment. Further development, testing, and refinement of the ECGI system is underway. While there is much more to accomplish in understanding the critical components of each individual patient’s AF, one cannot help but hear the hope dripping from the story that Martin shared.”

Editor’s Comments
I admire Martin’s tenacity in seeking his A-Fib cure after two failed catheter ablations. He educated himself about his disease and its treatments. Then he sought out an EP who would meet his needs, even drawing up a five-point check list to discuss before his third ablation. Well done, Martin!
Martin’s O.R. Report: Dr. Cuculich found all Martin’s PV’s were still not isolated or had re-connected. After his two previous ablations, all Martin’s PVs had connected/re-connected. Dr. Cuculich also found many gaps in Martin’s previous roof and mitral isthmus ablation lines.
ECGI Vest Found Hard-To-Map Drivers: The Medtronic ECGI Vest mapping system found Non-PV driver areas in Martin’s heart that easily could have escaped notice with routine mapping systems, areas such as the Coronary Sinus, Left Superior Pulmonary Vein and lateral Right Atrium.
During Dr. Cuculich’s ablation, Martin’s A-Fib/Flutter terminated when his Coronary Sinus was effectively ablated and isolated. This is considered the best outcome of an ablation. Most EPs would have stopped at this point. But because the Medtronic ECGI vest had indicated there were more A-Fib signal sources not yet ablated, Dr. Cuculich ablated those areas as well.
Medtronic ECGI Vest Very Effective! Martin’s A-Fib was a difficult case after two failed ablations. Instead of the usually 2-3-hour ablation, Martin’s took 5 hours, probably because the previous 2 ablation lesions made the third ablation more complicated.
The Medtronic ECGI Vest seems to be a major advance and improvement in the treatment of A-Fib. It certainly worked in Martin’s case. But at this time, few centers in the U.S. are using it and are only beginning to develop significant experience. This is because Medtronic wants the system to work as best as possible before making it more widely available.
What this means to patients: If you have persistent A-Fib or would be considered a potentially difficult case, try to find a center or EP with experience using the Medtronic ECGI Vest (even though you may have to travel.) It seems to be the next major advance and best mapping/ablation system on the market.

References for this Article

Kolata, G. A ‘Game Changer’ for Patients With Irregular Heart Rhythm. The, Dec. 13, 2017.

Cuculich, P. S., et al. Noninvasive Cardiac Radiation for Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia. December 14, 2017. N Engl J Med 2017; 377:2325-2336. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1613773.

Ryan, S. The New Era of Catheter Ablation Technology: Force Sensing Catheters.

Ryan, S. The Role of the Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) & Removal Issues.

Natale, A., et al. Paroxysmal AF Catheter Ablation With a Contact Force Sensing Catheter: Results of the Prospective, Multicenter SMART-AF Trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2014. ISSN: 1558-3597, Vol: 64, Issue: 7, Page: 647-56.

Learn about sharing your A-Fib story

Return to: Personal A-Fib Stories

If you find any errors on this page, email us. Y Last updated: Friday, June 22, 2018

2018 AF Symposium: Kiss of Death for FIRM Mapping? The REAFFIRM Trial

In a late-breaking presentation, the interim results of the REAFFIRM trial were presented by Dr. John Hummel from the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM)

FIRM stands for Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM) and is used for mapping electrical signals of the heart.

The trial was intended to assess the safety and effectiveness of FIRM mapping used with conventional ablation (including PVI) versus a standard PVI procedure for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation.

REAFFIRM Trial Design

In a prospective multi-center trial, 350 patients with persistent or long-standing persistent A-Fib who had not had a previous ablation were randomized in a 1:1 fashion. The trial was designed to compare FIRM mapping used with standard catheter ablation (including PVI) versus PVI without use of FIRM mapping.

The non-FIRM ablation control group included…Continue reading this report->

Review All My Reports

To browse all my 2018 reports, go to my 2018 AF Symposium page (or use the link in the left menu column).

My 2018 reports

2018 AF Symposium My Last 2 Live Procedures Reports

The Left Atrial Appendage was a popular topic at the 2018 AF Symposium. My last live case reports present two more ways for isolating the Left Atrial Appendage, one an occlusion device and the other using a CryoBalloon catheter.

Amplatzer Anulet

Installing an Amplatzer™ Amulet™ LAA Occluder

Dr. Claudio Tondo from Milan, Italy, demonstrated an LAA closure by inserting the Amplatzer Amulet LAA closure device. Because of the patient’s history of major bleeding, Dr. Tondo decided to close off her LAA first while postponing a PVI until later. (In Europe, a LAA occluder can be inserted at the same time as a catheter ablation). (See also, Installing a Coherex WaveCrest LAA Occlusion Device.)

The Amplatzer has two lips which close over both the outside and the inside of the LAA―like a sandwich…Continue reading this report->

CryoBalloon catheter

CryoBalloon catheter

CryoBalloon Catheter for Isolation of the LAA

To isolate the Non-PV triggers originating in the patient’s Left Atrial Appendage, Dr. Knight used a CryoBalloon catheter in order to penetrate deeper into the LAA tissue.

Using the CryoBalloon Catheter for this procedure is an “off-label use”, i.e., a new use not described in the FDA approved device labeling. (Also see, Isolating the Left Atrial Appendage using RF Energy) Dr. Knight used a 28mm CryoBalloon catheter… Continue reading this report>

Read My Other Live Case Reports

To browse all my 2018 reports, go to my 2018 AF Symposium page (or use the link in the left menu column).

My 2018 reports: more to come

Follow Us
facebook - A-Fib.comtwitter - A-Fib.comlinkedin  - A-Fib.compinterest  - A-Fib.comYouTube: A-Fib Can be Cured!  - Mission Statement

We Need You

Encourage others
with A-Fib
click to order.

"Beat Your A-Fib" by Steve S. Ryan A-Fib Alerts Discount Offer is a
501(c)(3) Nonprofit

Your support is needed. Every donation helps, even just $1.00. top rated by since 2014 

Home | The A-Fib Coach | Help Support | A-Fib News Archive | Tell Us What You think | Press Room | GuideStar Seal | HON certification | Disclosures | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy