To my 2017 AF Symposium Overview, I added how we observed in-progress A-Fib procedures via streaming video from five locations spanning the globe, and heard from the EPs performing the ablations. Continue to the Video Overview…
Report 11: LIVE! Ablation Using CardioFocus Laser Balloon
Video streaming from Na Homolce Hospital in Prague, The Czech Republic. Drs. Peter Neuzil, Jan Petru and Jan Skoda did an ablation using the CardioFocus HeartLight Endoscopic Visually Guided Laser Balloon (FDA approved April 4, 2016).
The doctors showed how they could directly see the Pulmonary Vein opening they were ablating (unlike RF and CryoBalloon systems). The center of the catheter has an endoscopic (looking inside) camera.
(To me, this is a major advantage and ground-breaking improvement for patients.)
Read more of my report, and see a short video clip with an actual view of the pulmonary veins during an ablation. …Continue reading my report….
Featuring the Amplatz Amulet from St. Jude Medical and the LAmbre from LifeTech Scientific.
Live from Milan, we watched the doctors insert an Amplatz Amulet into the LAA of a 78-year-old women who had a high risk of bleeding.
These doctors did something I had never seen before. They made a physical model of the woman’s LAA, then showed how the Amplatz Amulet fit into the model. This helped AF Symposium attendees see how the Amplatz Amulet actually worked. …Continue reading my report…
Report 9: World-Wide Studies on Genetic A-Fib
Dr. Patrick Ellinor of Mass. General Hospital, Boston MA, reported the biggest news is that A-Fib genetic research is increasing exponentially. The AFGen Consortium website lists 37 different studies and world-wide institutions studying A-Fib genetics with over 70,000 cases. Within the next 10 years, Dr. Ellinor and his colleagues hope to identify over 100 different genetic loci for A-Fib.
Dr. Ellinor reported that using a genetic “fingerprint” of A-Fib helps to identify those patients at the greatest risk of a stroke. (There’s a 40% increased risk of developing A-Fib if a relative has it.)…Continue reading my report…
About the Annual AF Symposium
The annual AF Symposium brings together the world’s leading medical scientists, researchers and EPs to share recent advances in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. You can read all my summary reports on my 2017 AF Symposium page.
Coping with your Atrial Fibrillation means a patient and their family have many and varied questions. Here are answers to the most frequently asked questions about dealing with the day-to-day issues of having Atrial Fibrillation. (Click on the question to jump to the answer.)
1. Specialist: “I like my cardiologist, but he has not talked about me seeing an Electrophysiologist [heart rhythm specialist]. Should I ask for a second opinion?”
2. Forewarning? “Is there any way to predict when I’m going to have an A-Fib attack?”
4. Progression of A-Fib: “How long do I have before my A-Fib goes into chronic or permanent A-Fib? I know it’s harder to cure. My A-Fib episodes seem to be getting longer and more frequent.”
5. A-Flutter: “They want to do an Atrial Flutter-only ablation, will that help if I possibly have A-Fib as well?”
6. Medical Marijuana: “Is smoking medical marijuana or using Marinol going to trigger or cause A-Fib? Will it help my A-Fib?
7. Action Plan: “During an A-Fib episode, when should I call paramedics (911 in the US) and/or take my husband to the hospital? I’m petrified. I need a plan.”
Related Question: “When my husband has an Atrial Fibrillation episode, what can I do for him? How can I be supportive?”
Related Question: “In case I have a stroke, what does my family need to know to help me? (I’m already on a blood thinner.) What can I do to improve my odds of surviving it?”
8. PVC/PACs: “I have a lot of extra beats and palpitations (PVCs or PACs). They seem to proceed an A-Fib attack. What can or should I do about them?”
9. DIY Monitors: “What kind of monitors are available for atrial fibrillation? Is there any way to tell how often I get A-Fib or how long the episodes last?”
Related Question: “My mom is 94 with A-Fib. Are there consumer heart rate monitors she can wear to alert me at work if her heart rate exceeds a certain number?”
10. Heart Rate: “Can I have A-Fib when my heart rate stays between 50-60 BPM? My doctor tells me I have A-Fib, but I don’t always have a rapid heart rate.”
Related Question: “My doctor says I need a pacemaker because my heart rate is too slow. I’m an athlete with A-Fib and have a naturally slow heart rate.”
11. Circulation: “Can I improve my circulation, without having to undergo a Catheter Ablation or Surgery? I’m in Chronic A-Fib. ”
12. Hereditary A-Fib: “Both my uncles and my Dad have Atrial Fibrillation. I’m worried. How can I avoid developing A-Fib? Can dietary changes help? Or lifestyle changes?”
13. Treatment choices: “How do I know which is the best A-Fib treatment option for me?”
Related Question: “In one of your articles it said that having an ablation was better than living in A-Fib. If your article means all types of A-Fib [including Paroxysmal], then I will consider an ablation.”
AF Symposium 2017
World-Wide Studies on Genetic A-Fib
Dr. Patrick Ellinor of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, updated everyone on the world-wide effort to identify the genetic basis of A-Fib.
What are the genetic variants associated with A-Fib? In previous research Dr. Ellinor showed, among other findings, that A-Fib is inheritable and that there is a 40% increased risk of developing A-Fib if a relative has it. (See my earlier report: Genetics of A-Fib 2012 AF Symposium.)
World-Wide Effort to Study A-Fib Genetics and Genome Sequencing
The biggest news is that A-Fib genetic research is increasing exponentially. The AFGen Consortium website lists 37 different studies and world-wide institutions studying A-Fib genetics with over 70,000 cases. Within the next 10 years, Dr. Ellinor and his colleagues hope to identify over 100 different genetic loci for A-Fib.
A-Fib Genetic “Fingerprint” May Help Identify Those at Risk of Stroke
Dr. Ellinor reported that using a genetic “fingerprint” of A-Fib helps to identify those patients at the greatest risk of a stroke. While still a research tool, this approach could be used to identify those patients at risk for either developing A-Fib or a stroke.
A-Fib genetic research and genome sequencing could someday identify the pathways and potential therapeutic targets of A-Fib.
In the future, genetic research may refine stroke risk models such as CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED to better target who may actually need anticoagulants and who can safely take them.
Participate in A-Fib Genetic Studies
If you and at least 3 other members of your family have A-Fib, you can become involved in this potentially very important research. Contact the studies at Mass. General Hospital or Vanderbilt University.
Patrick T. Ellinor, MD, PhD, Director, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service
Marisa Shea, RN, Research Nurse
Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114
617-724-7780, Email: mshea1(at)partners.org
Vanderbilt University also welcomes families with A-Fib for their genetic studies. Contact the Vanderbilt Atrial Fibrillation Registry (they also have an AF Ablation Registry)
Diane Crawford, RN
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1266 MRB IV, Nashville, TN 37232-0575
(615) 322-0067, Email: Diane.n.crawford(at)vanderbilt.edu
Recent Post: For more about genetic Atrial Fibrillation, see my post, Inherited A-Fib? Is it More Risker for Family Members?
Atrial Fibrillation patients often have loads of “Why?” and “How?” questions. Here are answers to the most frequently asked questions by patients and their families. (Click on the question to jump to the answer.)
1. Causes: “Why does so much Atrial Fibrillation come from the Pulmonary Vein openings?”
Related Question: “What causes Paroxysmal A-Fib to turn into Persistent (Chronic) A-Fib?”
Related Question: “A-Fib and Flutter—I have both. Does one cause the other?”
2. Hereditary: “Is my Atrial Fibrillation genetic? Will my children get A-Fib too?”
3. PSVT: “Is Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) different from what doctors call Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia?”
4. Adrenergic/Vagal: “What is the difference between “Adrenergic” and “Vagal” Atrial Fibrillation? How can I tell if I have one or the other? Does it really matter? Does Pulmonary Vein Ablation (Isolation) work for Adrenergic and/or Vagal A-Fib?”
5. Stiff Heart: “I’ve heard about ‘stiff heart’ or diastolic dysfunction. When you have A-Fib, do you automatically have diastolic heart failure? What exactly is diastolic dysfunction?”
6. Stem Cells: “I’ve read about stem cells research to regenerate damaged heart tissue. Could this help cure A-Fib patients?”
7. EF: “What is the heart’s ejection fraction? As an A-Fib patient, is it important to know my EF?”
8. Anesthesia: “I read that the local anesthesia my dentist uses may trigger my A-Fib. Why is that?”
9. Fibrosis: “How can I determine or measure how much fibrosis I have? Can something non-invasive like a CT scan measure fibrosis?”
10. Treatment Options: “My surgeon wants to close off my LAA during my Mini-Maze surgery. Should I agree? What’s the role of the Left Atrial Appendage?”
Related Question: “My cardiologist recommends a pacemaker. I have paroxysmal A-Fib with “pauses” at the end of an event. Will they stop if my A-Fib is cured? I am willing, but want to learn more about these pauses first.”
Related Question: “My EP won’t even try a catheter ablation. My left atrium is over 55mm and several cardioversions have failed. I am 69 years old, in permanent A-Fib for 15 years, but non-symptomatic. I exercise regularly and have met some self-imposed extreme goals. What more can I do?
If you find any errors on this page, email us. Y Last updated: Tuesday, February 14, 2017
2. “Is my Atrial Fibrillation genetic? Will my children get A-Fib too?”
Genetic research in A-Fib, though in its preliminary stages, has the potential to be a game changer for patients with A-Fib. But right now we just don’t have a definitive answer to your question.
A-Fib does run in families. Do you have a parent or other family member with A-Fib? Research has found that, if you have any immediate family with A-Fib, you have a 40% increased risk of developing A-Fib yourself. And the younger that family member was when they got A-Fib, the more likely you are to develop A-Fib. Following the logic of this research, your children may be 40% more likely to develop A-Fib.
While the gene that increases the tendency for Familial A-Fib has been identified, there hasn’t been enough research on the genetics of A-Fib to say whether or not you will pass it on to your children.
To learn more about how A-Fib can run in families, read a few of our Personal A-Fib stories: Jon Darsee (#68), Pat Truesdale (#63), Jan Claire (#39), Barry Gordon (#22), and James Adams (#13). You may want to read about Roger Meyer and Three Generations with AFib (see our book, Beat Your A-Fib, page 110).
What are the Causes of A-Fib?
It’s estimated as many as 5.1 million people in the U.S. have A-Fib. By the year 2050, the number will be 12-16 million.1 Each year there are over 340,000 new cases in the US. A-Fib is the most common heart arrhythmia.2 In the U.S. people over 40 have a one in four lifetime risk of developing A-Fib.3
HOW DO YOU GET A-FIB?
If you’ve had other heart problems, this could lead to diseased heart tissue which generates the extra A-Fib pulses. Hypertension (high blood pressure), Mitral Valve disease, Congestive Heart Failure, coronary artery disease, and obesity6 seem to be related to A-Fib, possibly because they stretch and put pressure on the pulmonary veins where most A-Fib originates. Coronary artery disease reduces blood flow and oxygen (stagnant hypoxia) which can trigger A-Fib.
A lot of A-Fib seems to come from uncontrolled high blood pressure. Many EPs recommend that all hypertension patients get a home BP monitor and aggressively work at controlling their blood pressure.
About 25% to 35% of stroke survivors experience atrial fibrillation;7 Up to 40% of patients8 get A-Fib after open heart surgery. “Pericarditis”—inflammation of the pericardium, a sack-like membrane surrounding the heart—can lead to A-Fib.
Heavy drinking may trigger A-Fib, what hospitals call “holiday heart”—the majority of A-Fib admissions occur over weekends or holidays when more alcohol is consumed. No association was found between moderate alcohol use and A-Fib.9 (Heavy drinking reduces the ability of cells to take up and utilize oxygen [histotoxic hypoxia] which in some people may produce or trigger A-Fib. [Thanks to Warren Stuart for this insight.]) See the personal A-Fib story by Kris: “Binge Drinking Leads to Chronic A-Fib, Amiodarone Damages Eyesight” pp. 144-150 in my book, Beat Your A-Fib.
See the personal A-Fib story by Kris: “Binge Drinking Leads to Chronic A-Fib, Amiodarone Damages Eyesight” pp. 144-150 in my book, Beat Your A-Fib.
But if you already have A-Fib, even moderate use may trigger an A-Fib attack, “…people with atrial fibrillation had almost a four and a half greater chance of having an episode if they were consuming alcohol than if they were not.”10 (Thanks to David Holzman for calling our attention to this article.)
Otherwise healthy middle-aged women who consumed more than 2 drinks daily were 60% more likely to develop AF.11
Steve Walters writes “that red wine brings on A-Fib attacks for him, but not beer, white wine, or cordials. Has anyone else had similar experiences with red wine?” E-mail: bicwiley(at)gmail.com.
Neville writes that “taking a heavy dose of Magnesium/Potassium tablets and bananas for breakfast kept him out of A-Fib during a golfing weekend with significant drinking.” He uses the same strategy to get out of an A-Fib attack. email@example.com
Severe Body & Mind Stress
Severe infections, severe pain, traumatic injury, and illegal drug use can be a trigger. Low or high blood and tissue concentrations of minerals such as potassium, magnesium and calcium can trigger A-Fib. Thyroid problems (hyperthyroidism), lung disease, reactive hypoglycemia, viral infections and diabetes.
To learn the impact of anxiety and emotional stress on A-Fib, see Jay Teresi’s personal story “Anxiety the Greatest Challenge”
Extreme fatigue, anxiety and emotional stress can trigger A-Fib.
Smoking can trigger A-Fib. Smoking reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen (anemic hypoxia). Smoking cigarettes raises the risk of developing A-Fib even if one stops smoking, possibly because past smoking leaves behind permanent fibrotic damage to the atrium which makes later A-Fib more likely.12
As we put on pounds, our risk of developing A-Fib increases. In recent studies overweight adults were 39% more likely, and obese adults 87% more likely, to develop A-Fib than their normal-weight counterparts.13
Health problems linked to obesity, like high blood pressure and diabetes, can contribute to A-Fib. And obesity may put extra pressure on the pulmonary veins and induce A-Fib. Left atrial hypertension is a common finding in obese patients.
14 Do you have a parent or other immediate family member with A-Fib? Research says you have a 40% increased risk of developing A-Fib yourself. And the younger that family member was when they got A-Fib, the more likely you are to develop A-Fib.
According to Dr. Dan Roden of Vanderbilt University, genetic research may become important to A-Fib patients. He postulates that “Lone A-Fib” (A-Fib without a known cause) may actually be caused by genetics.
We’ve had reports that A-Fib can be triggered by antihistamines, bronchial inhalants, local anesthetics, medications such as sumatriptan, a headache drug,15 tobacco use, MSG, cold beverages and eating ice cream, high altitude, and even sleeping on one’s left side or stomach. One person writes that hair regrowth products seem to trigger his A-Fib.
I used to include caffeine (coffee, tea, sodas, etc.) in this list, but some research suggests that coffee and caffeine in moderate to heavy doses (2-3 cups to 10 cups/day) may not trigger or induce A-Fib.16 Coffee (caffeine) may indeed be antiarrhythmic and may reduce propensity and inducibility of A-Fib both in normal hearts and in those with focal forms of A-Fib.17
Possible Food-Related Triggers
Chocolate in large amounts may trigger attacks. Chocolate contains a little caffeine, but also contains the structurally related theobromine, a milder cardiac stimulant.
Another reader writes that the natural sweetener and sugar substitute Stevia seems to trigger her A-Fib.
GERD (heartburn) and other stomach problems (like H. pylori) may be related to or trigger A-Fib. If so, antacids and proton pump inhibitors like Nexium may help your A-Fib. A report from England suggests that the veterinary antibiotic “Lasalocid” found in eggs and poultry meat may cause or trigger A-Fib.18
Recent research indicates sleep apnea (where your breathing stops while you are sleeping) may contribute to A-Fib, probably by causing stress on the Pulmonary Vein openings and/or by depriving the lungs and body of adequate oxygen supply (Hypoxemic Hypoxia).
Over 25 million Americans currently have sleep apnea, but 80% of these people don’t know they have it
In one study of patients with A-Fib, 43% had sleep apnea. (An additional 31% had “central sleep apnea/Cheyne-Stokes respiration” which is a different type of sleep apnea.)19
If you have A-Fib, it’s wise to have yourself checked for sleep apnea. You can do a “quick” check of how much oxygen is in your blood with a Pulse Oximeter, such as the Contec Pulse Oximeter for about $20 from Amazon.com and in drug stores. A reading below 90% would indicate you need to have a sleep lab study.
You may want to check out the web site, MySleepApnea, http://www.myapnea.org, an online community for people with sleep apnea to s hare health info and personal experiences. (The Shaquille O’Neal video is terrific!)
Gail writes that “both her sleep apnea and her A-Fib were cured by a CPAP [Continuous Positive Airway Pressure] breathing machine.” (E-mail her: gail(at)bonairwine.com.)
Mechanically Induced A-Fib
Be careful if you work around equipment that vibrates. Certain frequencies and/or vibrations may possibly trigger or induce A-Fib. (If anyone has any info on how or why high frequencies and/or vibrations may possibly affect A-Fib, please let me know.)
Jerry writes that “high powered magnets, such as the N50, may trigger A-Fib due to the electromagnetic fields they generate.” (If you have any info on this, please email me.)
Physical and Gender Characteristics
Men get A-Fib more than women. But women may have more symptoms.
Men get A-Fib more than women. But women may have more symptoms.
Men get A-Fib more than women. But women fail more antiarrhythmic drugs therapies than men and may have more symptoms. For more see my article: The Facts About Women with A-Fib: Mother Nature and Gender Bias.
A-Fib is associated with aging of the heart. As patients get older, the prevalence of A-Fib increases, roughly doubling with each decade. 2-3% of people in their 60s, 5-6% of people in their 70s, and 8-10% of people in their 80s have A-Fib.21,22,23Approximately 70% of people with A-Fib are between 65 and 85 years of age.24 This suggests that A-Fib may be related to degenerative, age-related changes in the heart. Inflammation may contribute to the structural remodeling associated with A-Fib.25
No Known Cause
But in many A-Fib cases (around 50% of Paroxysmal A-Fib26), there is no currently discernible cause or trigger (called “Lone” or “Idiopathic A-Fib”).27 (Some research suggests that inflammation may initiate Lone A-Fib.)28
Last updated: Sunday, April 10, 2016
- Miyasaka, Yoko, et al, Secular Trends in Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and Implications on the Projections for Future Prevalence Circulation, 2006;114:119-125. Last accessed Feb 15, 2013. URL: http://www.circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/114/2/119↵
- Nelson, Bryn. “Places In The Heart,” NYU Physician. Spring, 2009, p. 8.↵
- Van Wagoner, David “Atrial selective strategies for treating atrial fibrillation.” Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies Vol 2, No. 3, 2005. “We have detected increased levels of the systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with A-Fib.”↵
- S. S. Chugh, et al. Worldwide Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation: A Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Circulation, 2013; DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005119↵
- Camm, “Stroke in atrial fibrillation: Update on pathology, new antithrombotic therapies, and evolution of procedures and devices.” Annals of Medicine, 39:5, 371-391, 2007↵
- The Link Between Infections and Inflammation in Heart Disease. Life Extension Vitamins. Last accessed November 5, 2012 http://www.lifeextensionvitamins.com/cadico6otco.html↵
- Bottom Line Personal, October 15, 2014, p. 11. Kallmunzer, Bernd et al. Peripheral pulse measurement after ischemic stroke. Nuerology, Published Online May 6, 2014 http://www.neurology.org/content/83/7/598.abstract?sid=f532228b-5314-46d3-bdca-a7db9bc7fa7d↵
- Frost L., et al. “Atrial fibrillation and flutter after coronary artery bypass surgery: epidemiology, risk factors and preventive trials. International Journal of Cardiology. 1992;36:253-262.↵
- Calkins, H. and Berger, R. “Atrial Fibrillation The Latest Management Strategies.” The Johns Hopkins Medicine Library, p. 10.↵
- Alcohol May Trigger Serious Palpitations in Heart Patients. American Journal of Cardiology (August 1, 2012) http://www.newswise.com/articles/alcohol-may-trigger-serious-palpitations-in-heart-patients↵
- Conen D, Tedrow UB, Cook NR, Moorthy MV, Buring JE, Albert CM (December 2008). “Alcohol consumption and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in women”. JAMA 300 (21): 2489 96.
doi:10.1001/jama.2008.755. PMID 19050192. PMC 2630715. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300/21/2489.↵
- Heeringa J, et al. Cigarette smoking and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam Study. Am Heart J. 2008 Dec;156(6):1163-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.08.003. Last accessed Jan 6, 2013 URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19033014↵
- Vivek Y. Reddy, M.D., Joins The Mount Sinai Medical Center as Director of Electrophysiology Laboratories.Â May 6, 2009 . http://www.prweb.com/printer/2396634.htm↵
- Brugada R. “Identification of a genetic locus for familial atrial fibrillation,” New England Journal of Medicine 1997;336:p. 905-911. Ellinor et al., 2005, 2008. Sinner et al., 2011.↵
- The Link Between Infections and Inflammation in Heart Disease. Life Extension Vitamins. Last accessed November 5, 2012 http://www.lifeextensionvitamins.com/cadico6otco.html↵
- Katan, M, Schouten, E. Caffeine and arrhythmia1,2,3. Am J Clin Nutr March 2005 vol. 81 no. 3 539-540. Last accessed November 5, 2012 http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/81/3/539↵
- Rashid, Abdul et al. “The effects of caffeine on the inducibility of Atrial fibrillation.” J Electrocardiol. 2006 October, 39(4): 421-425. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2257921/↵
- Barclay, L. Caffeine Not Associated With Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation. Mar 10, 2005. Medscape News Today. Last accessed November 5, 2012. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/501279?src=search↵
- Bitter, T. et al. Sleep-disordered Breathing in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Normal Systolic Left Ventricular Function. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106(10): 164-70 http://www.aerzteblatt.de/pdf/di/106/10/m164.pdf. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2009.0164↵
- “The tallest patients in a recent study were 32% more likely to have A-Fib than the shortest ones. Doctors estimate that for every six-inch increase in height, the risk for A-Fib increases by 50%.” Bottom Line Health, July, 2006, p. 14.↵
- Go, “Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) study. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention.” JAMA, 2001:285:2370-2375.↵
- Philip A. et al. Atrial Fibrillation: A Major Contributor to Stroke in the Elderly, : The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1561-1564.↵
- Feinberg, “Prevalence, age distribution, and gender of patients with atrial fibrillation: analysis and implications.” Arch Intern Med 1995;155:469-473.↵
- Laish-Farkash, A. et al. Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly—To Ablate or Not to Ablate, J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013;24(7):739-741. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/807303.↵
- Van Wagoner, David “Atrial selective strategies for treating atrial fibrillation.” Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies Vol 2, No. 3, 2005. “We have detected increased levels of the systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with A-Fib.“↵
- Allessie, Maurits A. et al. “Pathophysiology and Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation.” Circulation. 2001;103:769.↵