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Michel Haïssaguerre MD

Silent Persistent A-Fib: A Proactive Patient’s 3-Year Journey to Burden Relief

By Frances E. Koepnick, Athens, GA, June, 2017

Frances, now A-Fib free after 3 yrs.

 “I was diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (A-Fib) in April 2014, at age 69, while undergoing a pre-operative physical examination prior to hip replacement surgery. This was a surprising development since my A-Fib was completely “silent” with no symptoms.

My A-Fib was diagnosed as being ‘persistent’ rather than ‘paroxysmal’. These two forms of A-Fib are quite different. However, both types of A-Fib are usually treated initially with prescription drugs. I was given the beta blocker atenolol to reduce my heart rate and the anti-coagulant Eliquis to prevent the formation of blood clots.

Family History of Atrial Fibrillation

Unlike many other stories on A-Fib.com, I was familiar with Atrial Fibrillation. I am the third person in my family with A-Fib after my mother and older sister. However, they both had paroxysmal A-Fib while I was diagnosed with persistent A-Fib.

On-going studies indicate that there may be a genetic link to A-Fib.  Consequently, if someone in your immediate family has been diagnosed with A-Fib, then your risk of developing it in the future may be increased.”

Six Cardioversions: Not a Long-Term Solution

Eventually, I underwent a total of six cardioversions in an attempt to return my heart to normal sinus rhythm. Three of these procedures were electrical cardioversions and three were by means of intravenous drugs. I soon learned that cardioversion is rarely effective for maintaining normal sinus rhythm over a significant period of time.

Consequently, I did not consider it to be a long-term solution for my A-Fib.

The First Two Cardiologists Advised: ‘Just Take Your Medications and Live with A-Fib’―No! No! No!

I eventually consulted a total of five cardiologists―three in the state of Georgia, one in Manhattan and one in Bordeaux, France. I have a background in anatomy/physiology as well as microbiology, so I asked a lot of questions and managed to irritate several physicians.

“I eventually consulted a total of five cardiologists. I asked a lot of questions and managed to irritate several physicians.”

The advice of the first two cardiologists was to “just take my medications and live with A-Fib”.

If your cardiologist recommends this treatment regimen, I urge you to get a second, third or even fourth opinion.

More Interviews: Three Electrophysiologists & Lots of Questions

After my first electrical cardioversion in March 2015, my heart remained in normal sinus rhythm for only 12 hours. At that time, I had been in persistent A-Fib for one year, and was re-classified as long-term persistent A-Fib. That motivated me to pursue a catheter ablation.

I ultimately discussed an ablation procedure with three different electrophysiologists and consequently learned to ask lots of questions such as:

  • What is the percentage rate of successful ablations performed by this cardiologist/electrophysiologist?
  • What is the risk of serious complications?
  • How many ablations does this cardiologist/electrophysiologist perform at his/her facility annually? (My opinion is: “the more, the better”.)
  • What type of instrumentation is used for electrical cardiac imaging? (My opinion is the CardioInsight or ECGI/ECVUE imaging system; FDA-approved for the USA in February 2017.)

I finally located a cardiologist/electrophysiologist (EP) at a regional medical center who performed ablations for long-term persistent A-Fib.

Look for the Best EP―and Ablate Sooner Rather Than Later

At this point, I had been in long term persistent A-Fib for 17 months. I delayed ablation until September 2015 due to need for second hip replacement. That was a mistake as I should have pursued ablation first. 

“…This delay of treatment reduced my chance of a successful first ablation to approximately 65%. I anticipated I might need a 2nd ablation because of this.”

That time delay was due to recommendations from two different EPs and consequently, reduced my chance of a successful first ablation to approximately 65%. (I anticipated I might need a 2nd ablation because of this.)

Ablation for Persistent A-Fib is More Difficult

There are many competent electrophysiologists in the USA who have been successful with ablations for paroxysmal A-Fib. However, ablations for persistent and long-term persistent A-Fib are more difficult, require a higher level of expertise, and are performed less frequently in the USA.

CHU Hopitaux de Bordeaux logoBordeaux, France: Consequently, in September, 2015 I decided to have my ablation for long-term persistent A-Fib performed in Bordeaux, France. I chose this location because it’s internationally known for its cardiologists/electrophysiologists as well as for its use of the computerized CardioInsight or ECGI imaging system. [They cured Steve Ryan’s A-Fib back in 1998.]

This arrhythmia group is headed by Dr. Michel Haissaguerre and Dr. Pierre Jais, and they perform ablations for paroxysmal, persistent and long-term persistent A-Fib. Of course, French citizens are first priority for admission, but out-of-country patients can be wait-listed.

Pierre Jais MD

Fran’s EP: Pierre Jais MD

Not Covered by My Insurance: I do need to mention that the decision to travel to Bordeaux, France, was financially significant. My medical treatment was not covered by insurance.

The Hopital Haut Leveque-Cardiologique in Bordeaux is not an impressive building. It was most likely built in the 1970s, the patient rooms are not air conditioned, and the parking lot is gravel rather than pavement. However, the French government obviously invests their health care funds in medical research, excellent physicians, quality hospital staffing, and state-of-the-art medical equipment.

“The hospital staff speak English, but I did purchase an English/French app with medical terminology for my smartphone.”

The physicians and most of the hospital staff speak English, so there really isn’t a significant language barrier problem. I did purchase an English/French app with medical terminology for my smartphone, and it was helpful on occasion. [In Bordeaux they have broken ground on the new LIRYC Institute which is intended to become one of the premier research institutions in Europe.]

Difficult Six-Hour Ablation at Bordeaux, then Electrical Cardioversions

My first ablation by Dr. Pierre Jais was a difficult procedure requiring six hours for completion. [Not only were her Pulmonary Vein openings isolated, but in addition, non-PV triggers were identified, mapped, and isolated using the CardioInsight ECGI mapping system.]

Fran wearing the mapping vest.

During the three-week time period following this ablation, two electrical cardioversions were also required. This was later explained to me by Dr. Jais as the interior of the atria needed to heal sufficiently so that scar tissue would successfully block abnormal electrical signals.

After this ablation, I continued to take the anticoagulant Eliquis and was also put on the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone for six months.

Normal Sinus Rhythm for 11 Months, then Atypical Flutter

I knew at the time of my first ablation that I most likely would require a second ablation due to my predicted one-year success rate of 65%.

My heart actually stayed in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) for a total of 11 months. Then I experienced three episodes of atypical atrial flutter over a two-week period, and each of these episodes resulted in an admission to the emergency room. After three intravenous drug cardioversions, I was placed back on amiodarone to maintain a normal sinus rhythm.

Suspected Sleep Apnea

After my third ER admission, I suspected that these episodes might have been triggered by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). I was waking up during the night with an extremely uncomfortable dry mouth even though my head was elevated while sleeping.

I consulted my dentist, and he referred me to a cardiologist/sleep specialist who ordered a sleep study. This study confirmed that my OAS was “severe” during periods of rapid eye movement sleep (REM).

Sleep Apnea and A-Fib: I would like to emphasize that OSA is a significant “trigger” for A-Fib. A recent study found that 43% of individuals with A-Fib also had a diagnosis of OSA.

“I suspected that these episodes might have been triggered by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a significant “trigger” for A-Fib. Of all A-Fib patients 43% are also diagnosed with OSA.”

This means that all individuals diagnosed with A-Fib need to be screened with a sleep study. If OSA is confirmed, it needs to be addressed immediately so that any future treatment for A-Fib is not compromised.

OSA can be controlled by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines whereby you wear a face mask at night when sleeping. I decided instead to have a custom oral appliance (FDA-approved TAP3) made by a sleep dentist. This oral appliance prevents my lower jaw from moving out of position when sleeping and thereby ensures that my airway remains open.

Second Ablation by Dr. Vivek Reddy Using CardioInsight ECGI

Dr. Vivek Reddy, Mt Siani Hospital

Dr Vivek Reddy, Mt Sinai Hospital

My second ablation was performed by Dr. Vivek Reddy at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan, New York in March 2017.

I had been referred to Dr. Reddy by my doctors in Bordeaux. It was fortuitous that Mount Sinai Hospital had just obtained the FDA-approved CardioInsight (ECGI) imaging system which was previously only available in Europe.

The physicians, staff and facilities at Mount Sinai Hospital are absolutely excellent. The arrhythmia group there is headed by Dr. Reddy, and I found him to be professional, personable and comfortable answering my questions.

My second ablation was another difficult, six-hour procedure, but ultimately successful. [If interested in Dr. Reddy’s O.R. Report on Frances’ ablation, see my comments below.]

I recommend that you go online to the Mount Sinai Hospital website and then watch short informative videos on A-Fib which are presented by Dr. Reddy himself. See What Do I Need to Know About Atrial Fibrillation? (21:29).

Success & Lessons Learned

My 3-year journey with A-Fib has included numerous cardioversions, two ablations and a belated diagnosis of underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

It’s now about three months since my second ablation, and I am doing well. I no longer am taking the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone, but continue on the anticoagulant Eliquis.

My recommendations:  Look locally, regionally, nationally and perhaps internationally in order to identify the best option for a successful ablation. (Yes, consider traveling to find the best EP for you.)

It is also important to seek an ablation sooner rather than later as a delay may decrease your chance of a successful procedure.

 Yes, consider traveling to find the best EP for you…seek an ablation sooner rather than later, a delay may decrease your chance of a successful procedure. 

Seek up-to-date information : I highly recommend the website, www.A-Fib.com for up-to-date information on A-Fib. This website is run by Steve Ryan, Ph.D. and―although he is not a medical doctor― he is an A-Fib expert who explains A-Fib in terms readily understood by the average person.

Steve also attends the AF International Symposium held annually in the USA, and his synopses of conference presentations contain the latest in A-Fib research. Steve was and continues to be my A-Fib coach.

Smartphone app: Finally, I recommend the AliveCor Kardia device ($99) and app for smartphones. This app determines your heart rate in beats per minute (BPM) and also records a 30-second electrocardiogram (ECG) using two electrodes attached to the back of your phone. Kardia’s software interprets your ECG as “normal” or as “possible A-Fib”, and you can email a copy of an ECG directly to your cardiologist. [Also see our 2016 Update: AliveCor Kardia Review by Travis Van Slooten]

I welcome your email,
Frances Koepnick
fek67@hotmail.com

Editor’s Comments:
We’re most grateful to Frances for her story. She’s a great example of a proactive patient. When told to ‘just take her meds and live with A-Fib’, she said NO! Even though she was relatively symptom-free, she knew how destructive A-Fib can be over time.
Don’t Just Live in A-Fib: Leaving patients in A-Fib overworks the heart and leads to remodeling and fibrosis which increase the risk of stroke, and also doubles the risk of developing dementia. For more read: ‘Drug Therapies’: Rate Control and A-Fib Doubles Risk of Dementia. If you hear someone tell you to just live with A-Fib, get a second opinion (or third, or fourth!).
Educate Yourself About A-Fib―Be Proactive: Frances knew she would be a more difficult case to fix. She researched who were the best EPs for her case. She asked all the right questions of the EPs she interviewed. (See Selecting a New Doctor? 10 Questions You’ve Got to Ask.) She even went to Bordeaux, France, on her own dime.
Find the Best EP You Can: All Electrophysiologists are not equal. Like Frances, don’t just settle for the nearest EP. Consider traveling to the best, most experienced EP you can afford, particularly if you have progressed to persistent A-Fib which is harder to fix. (See Finding the Right Doctor for You and Your A-Fib.)
Silent A-Fib: If You’re 65 or Older, Get Yourself Tested: Frances is lucky. She could have easily been one of the 25% of stroke victims who only discover their silent A-Fib after having a stroke. Everyone 65-years-old or older, should be tested for silent A-Fib.
Sleep Apnea: Most EPs today will insist you get tested for sleep apnea before performing a catheter ablation. Why? Patients with untreated sleep apnea have a greater risk of their A-Fib reoccurring even after a successful ablation. Also, for a lucky few, just getting rid of sleep apnea restores them to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). To learn more, see Sleep Apnea: When Snoring Can Be Lethal
CardioInsight ECGI/ECVUE System: The CardioInsight ECGI/ECVUE mapping system is probably the most significant, game changing improvement in mapping A-Fib, particularly for people with persistent A-Fib. To learn more, see Bordeaux New ECGI Ablation Protocol—Re-Mapping During Ablation.
Special 12-page report by Steve S. Ryan, PhD

FREE 12-page Report

Frances’ O.R. Report: Using the CardioInsight system, Dr. Reddy found 5 A-Fib drivers in Frances’ atria. (In typical persistent cases, 4 driver regions are usually identified. 7 drivers is the maximum found in more difficult cases.) (For you technical types, the 5 A-Fib drivers were found: at the base of the Left Atrial Appendage (LAA), the Ostium of the Coronary Sinus (CS), the posterior Left Atrium (LA), the Right Atrial Appendage (RAA) and the lateral Right Atrium (RA).)
When Dr. Reddy ablated at the base of the LAA, Frances’ A-Fib terminated. (That’s the ideal result when A-Fib terminates during the ablation.) But then Dr. Reddy checked to see if there were any other regions in her heart producing A-Fib/Flutter signals. By pacing her heart, he was able to induce Atrial Flutter (CL 380msec). Using activation mapping, he found the re-entry atrial flutter circuit was coming from the anterior inferior RA. Ablating this area terminated her Flutter.

For more about O.R. reports, see my free report: How to Read Your Operating Room Report.

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If you find any errors on this page, email us. Y Last updated: Friday, June 23, 2017

 

AF Symposium 2015: Going Beyond PVI With ECGI Mapping and Ablation Techniques

Dr Michele Haïssaguerre, The French Bordeaux group

Dr Michele Haïssaguerre, The French Bordeaux group

ECGI is changing everything. Instead of potentials and CFAEs, EPs will focus on ablating drivers (rotors and foci). Prof. Michel Haïssaguerre of the French Bordeaux group/LIRYC gave a presentation on the changing world of catheter ablation using Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging, or ECGI (from CardioInsight), a radically new and innovative mapping and ablation system.

The system automatically detects rotors and foci and computes them into a “Cumulative Map” or movie. These driver regions are ranked, based on statistical prevalence. They are displayed in statistical density maps which define the ablation road map.

Ablation using ECGI results in a dramatic decrease of RF burns needed to produce A-Fib ‘termination’.

Dr. Haïssaguerre showed slides where he ablated driver regions which then transformed rapid complex A-Fib signals into slower organized signals.

Read more about Dr. Haïssaguerre’s experiences with ECGI, driver regions and long-lasting persistent A-Fib.

The Changing Ablation World: Going Beyond PVI With ECGI Mapping and Ablation Techniques

Dr Michele Haïssaguerre, The French Bordeaux group/LIRYC

Dr Michele Haïssaguerre, The French Bordeaux group/LIRYC

AF Symposium 2015

The Changing Ablation World: Going Beyond PVI With ECGI Mapping and Ablation Techniques

By Steve S. Ryan, May 2015

ECGI is changing everything—not only the way mapping and ablations are done, but also our basic understanding of A-Fib. Instead of potentials and CFAEs, EPs will focus on ablating drivers (rotors and foci). Ablating the PVs will still be basic. But in more difficult cases, EPs must look for non-PV triggers or drivers.

Prof. Michel Haïssaguerre of the French Bordeaux group/LIRYC gave a presentation entitled “Beyond PVI—Mapping and Ablation Techniques for Elimination of Drivers in Persistent AF.” Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging, or ECGI (from CardioInsight) is a radically new and innovative mapping and ablation system.

The ECGI Vest-Like Device Innovative Mapping and Ablation System

Dr. Haïssaguerre patient, Carlo Romero, as technician attaches ECGI vest

Dr. Haïssaguerre patient, Carlo Romero, as technician attaches ECGI vest

The day before their ablation, the patient lies down on their back and a technician places a vest-like device with 256 electrodes over their chest and stomach. These electrodes combine with rapid CT (Computed Tomography) scans to produce a very detailed 3D color map of the heart.

The system automatically detects rotors and foci and computes them into a “Cumulative Map” or movie. These driver regions are ranked, based on statistical prevalence. They are displayed in statistical density maps which define the ablation roadmap.

The use of ECGI mapping results in a drastic decrease of RF burns needed

The ECGI vest doesn’t directly record A-Fib signals from the septal regions. But Dr. Haïssaguerre showed slides where the septal drivers project onto the anterior and posterior attachments of the septum and are thus able to be mapped. For a detailed description and discussion of the ECGI system, see 2013 BAFS: Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI).

Ablation using ECGI results in a drastic decrease of RF burns needed to produce A-Fib termination.

In ECGI, Paroxysmal and Persistent A-Fib Ablation are Different

Paroxysmal: Using ECGI in 41 paroxysmal patients, Dr. Haïssaguerre found that the A-Fib drivers originated from the PV/post LA region. They consisted of PV discharges interacting with short-lived ostial rotors, which is in accordance with current knowledge and practice of A-Fib ablation. (A standard PVI ablation normally targets these areas.)

Persistent: But in 248 persistent A-Fib cases (54% with Structural Heart Disease), he found multiple interplaying A-Fib drivers coming from both atria but usually clustered in 4 regions. (The regions could vary from 1-7.) These drivers were short lived (3-4 reentries/firings) but periodically recurred in the same areas. As one would expect, the number of driver regions increased with the duration of persistent A-Fib. Long-Lasting persistent had 7 driver regions diffused throughout the atria. Cases with only 1 driver region were rare (9%).

Relationship of Drivers and CFAEs

These driver regions overlapped with areas of CFAEs (Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms). But whereas CFAEs were found in 49% of the total atrial surface, drivers were found only in 19%. Also, fractionated signals were more frequent and spanned a greater part of the A-Fib cycle length in driver regions than elsewhere (71% vs 47%). (This is good news for patients with persistent A-Fib. With ECGI, much less heart area needs to undergo ablation burns.)

Best Ablation Outcome is A-Fib Termination, But Not Always Possible with Persistent A-Fib

Dr. Haïssaguerre showed slides where he ablated driver regions which transformed rapid complex A-Fib signals into slower organized signals. He stated from his own experience and from several studies that the best outcome of ablation was A-Fib termination into sinus rhythm or tachycardia.

But this result was much harder to achieve in long-lasting persistent A-Fib. In cases where patients had only recently went into persistent A-Fib (1-3 months), 75% had A-Fib termination targeting driver regions. While in long-lasting persistent A-Fib, only 13% had A-Fib termination. Dr. Haïssaguerre’s hypothesis was that early persistent A-Fib is initially driver-dependent, while long-lasting persistent cases progress to widespread substrate disease.

In another study following 90 patients, 85% of patients with A-Fib termination were A-Fib free after 12 months (in the remaining 15%, 54% were paroxysmal). While patients who didn’t have their A-Fib terminated, only 63% were A-Fib free (all were persistent).

What EPs Do When AF Persists After ECGI Driver Ablation

• Check driver regions (including PVs) to ensure abolition of rapid-disorganized EGMs (electrogram signals).

• Body Surface Remapping—to look for new drivers appearing after the first ones are eliminated. Many have observed that this strategy often improves results in difficult cases of long-lasting A-Fib.

Right Atrium Ablation

Dr. Haïssaguerre recommended ablating the right atrium after the left. Right atrium drivers can disappear after left atrium ablation.

Dr. Haïssaguerre’s Conclusions

• Noninvasive mapping visualizes AF drivers which are Multiple, Meandering, ShortLasting and Associated with Complex EGMs (electrogram signals).

• Ablation targeting these AF critical regions allows high rate of AF termination with minimal RF delivery.

• 85% AF freedom at one year when procedural AF termination is achieved.

• Reproducibility in 8 centers in Germany, Belgium and France (AFACART) (Eight centers in Europe are now performing ECGI ablations with similar results.)

Editor’s Comments:
Non-PV Triggers: If your EP only ablates the PVs, you should look elsewhere. I just read an O.R. (Operating Report) where the EP only CryoBalloon ablated the PVs. Even though the patient was still in A-Fib after the PVs were ablated, the EP didn’t look for non-PV triggers. He simply shocked the patient back into sinus rhythm and put him on an antiarrhythmic drug. Chances are the patient’s A-Fib will return, since the non-PV triggers in his heart weren’t ablated.
Driver regions overlap with CFAEs—CFAEs can be ignored: In difficult cases of A-Fib, EPs used to spend a lot of time mapping and ablating CFAEs. Sometimes there were so many CFAEs that the EP wound up debulking much of the left atrium. In Dr. Haïssaguerre’s research, CFAEs could cover nearly half of the total atria surface. But with ECGI, only 19% of that area is ablated. ECGI makes the EP’s job simpler and causes less burns on the patient’s heart.
Try to Get Out of Persistent A-Fib: If you haven’t done so already, ask your EP to be Electrocardioverted in order to avoid long-lasting A-Fib which causes atrial remodeling that produces widespread fibrosis and diffuse driver regions.
You may want to try the newer antiarrhythmic drug Tikosyn (dofetilide) which works well in some cases of persistent A-Fib. (When starting Tikosyn, you will have to be hospitalized for three days to get the dosage right and to check for bad side effects.)
Currently some long-standing A-Fib can’t be cured: The best outcome of ablation is A-Fib termination. But some long-lasting persistent cases turn into widespread substrate disease where it’s not always possible to map and ablate drivers. Even the famed Bordeaux group hasn’t yet figured out a way to achieve 100% success when ablating all long-standing persistent A-Fib.
If you have long-standing persistent A-Fib, should you just throw in the towel and give up? No. In Dr. Haïssaguerre experience, 63% of persistent patients who didn’t have their A-Fib terminated were still A-Fib free. You could be in that 63%. Just be realistic and don’t expect miracles.

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Last updated: Saturday, May 30, 2015

How ECGI Works by Dr. Haissaguerre-2014 Boston AF Symposium

Dr Michele Haissaguerre

Michel Haissaguerre MD

2014 Boston AF Symposium

How ECGI (Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging) Works

Report by Dr. Steve S. Ryan, PhD

Dr. Michel Haissaguerre of the LIRYC Institute in Bordeaux, France gave a presentation entitled “Mechanistic Insights From Noninvasive Mapping of AF—Implications for Catheter Ablation.”

Dr, Haissaguerre began by discussing the concept of voltage vs. noise in reading an ECG. High accuracy can be obtained with a EGM (electrogram signal) of >0.15mV. Body Filtering (ECGI) can miss small local A-Fib signals, but does not affect global patterns.

He found that when mapping Focal A-Fib signals from both inside and outside the heart, they may differ in location by 3.1mm. (This is a relatively small difference and isn’t enough to affect the overall accuracy of the mapping and ablation.)

How ECGI (Body Mapping) Works

He described how the ECGI system works. A patient lies down on his/her back and a technician places a vest-like device with 256 electrodes over his/her chest and stomach. These electrodes combine with rapid CT (Computed Tomography) scans to produce a very detailed 3D color map of the heart. (For a detailed description and discussion of the ECGI system, see 2013 BAFS: Non-Invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging [ECG])

The system automatically detects rotors and foci and computes them into a “Cumulative Map” or movie. These driver regions are ranked, based on statistical prevalence. Dr. Haissaguerre showed slides of these drivers originating from PVs in Paroxysmal A-Fib.

In persistent A-Fib he found multiple interplaying driver regions (median 4, 1 to 7) found in the Left Atrium, PVs and Right Atrium (“driver regions” include both focal sources and rotors). The rotors were temporally and spatially unstable. They were not sustained. Most had 2-3 rotations with a mean of 448ms. They required a statistical analysis of their core trajectory/density. Patients in Persistent Long-Lasting A-Fib for more than six months had the most driver regions and the least success in A-Fib termination after six months.

…ECGI ablation significantly reduced the amount of burns needed to terminate A-Fib.

Compared to the traditional Bordeaux step-wise ablation for persistent A-Fib, ECGI ablation significantly reduced the amount of burns needed to terminate A-Fib.

Dr. Haissaguerre uses a Multielectrode circular catheter not yet approved for use in the US. This catheter can more easily capture and isolate regional targets like rotors that do move a little.

Dr. Haissaguerre’s Conclusions

  • Regional clusters of A-Fib drivers can be mapped non-invasively
  • ECGI mapping before a procedure identifies critical regions to ablate. This reduces targeted atrial areas and RF delivery. The optimal timing is in the early months of persistent A-Fib.
  • There is a need for appropriate ablation tools (such as circular or multielectrode catheters) as rotor targets are not so limited (they tend to move slightly).
Editor’s Comments:
Back in 2013 I predicted that “the ECGI system, barring unforeseen circumstances, will rapidly supersede all other mapping systems and will become the standard of care in the treatment of A-Fib patients.”
Not only does the ECGI system produce a complete, precise, 3D, color video of each spot in a patient’s heart producing A-Fib signals, but also an ECGI can be done by a technician before the procedure rather than by a doctor during an ablation. And the ECGI map is a better, more accurate, more complete map than an EP can produce by using a conventional mapping catheter inside the heart.
From a patient’s perspective, ECGI reduces both the time it takes to do an ablation and the number of burns a patient receives.
The only caveat that Dr. Haissaguerre found (which relate to all mapping strategies, not just to ECGI) is that rotors move slightly and are somewhat unstable. A computer has to be used to statistically analyze their core trajectory. But circular catheters can be used to contain and isolate them.

Addendum: April 2015

Jeffrey Patten asked, “I’ve heard that the new mapping and ablation vest system ECGI (CardioInsight), though very detailed with 256 electrodes, doesn’t directly map the septum area. Is that correct?”

It’s correct to say the ECGI does not directly map the septum area. But, that doesn’t mean the septal activity can’t be mapped with the ECGI.
I posed your question to the world-reknown cardiologist, Dr. Pierre Jais of the Bordeaux group. He explained that “the septal activity projects at the anterior and posterior attachments of the septum on both atria.” He added that mapping the septum with the ECGI system “…requires some experience, but is at the end easy.”
So don’t be reluctant to seek out the new mapping and ablation vest system ECGI (by CardioInsight). Just be sure you have a top-notch, experienced operator.

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Last updated: Wednesday, September 2, 2015 

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